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A. Application in food industry

A. Application in food industry

1. Grinded wheat flour to nanoscale [2]

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Top down dry milling and grinding technology is used to make wheat flour of very fine size. It has an increased water-binding capacity and increased ratio of nutrient digestion and absorption.

2. Enhancing green tea powder by using nanoscale [2]

Top down dry milling technology is used to decrease the size of green tea powder to 1000 nm. The small size increases its antioxidant properties and oxygen eliminating enzyme activity.

3. Self-assembly in making proteins and starch [2]

Self-assembly on the nanoscale is used to create very stable structures of protein aggregates and globular protein. Self-assembly is done by balancing the different noncovalent forces.

4. Enhance the properties of bioactive compounds in food [2]

Using nanoparticles as the bioactive compounds in food, increases the physiological benefits of food, such as delivery, solubility and absorption properties. It decreases the risk of some diseases.

5. Nanocapsuled in cooking oil [2]

Nutraceuticals within nano-capsules are added to cooking oil. The nano-capsules improve the flavors. Also, it can selectively remove and bind to chemicals from the food.

6. Food packaging using nanomaterials [2]

The hybrid nanostructure of bionanocomposites enhances its mechanical, thermal and gas barrier properties. Used in food packaging. Increases shelf-life, protect the food. Replace plastic packages.

7. Zein nanobeads functions in food [2]

Zein nanobeads and nanoparticles are added to food as edible carriers of flavors, encapsulate nutraceuticals. It increases plastic strength and bioactive food packages due to its tensile properties.

8. Increase the biodegradability of packages by using nanocomposites [2]

To control diffusion rate, and to improve stability and biodegradability of food packages. Layered silicate (1nm thick, diameter of 30 to 200 nm) is embedded into a polymer matrix to make hybrid nanocomposites.

9. α -lactalbumin nanotube used as food thickeners [2]

α -lactalbumin nanotube protein is obtained by the hydrolysis of milk protein. It has grater viscosity and stiffness due to its large surface hence it can be used as thickener in food.

10. Uses of α -lactalbumin nanotubes cavities [2]

α -lactalbumin have 8nm cavities where vitamins and enzymes can bind to. Also, the cavities can be used to disguise unwanted flavors and aromas. Cavities encapsulate nutrients and protect them.

11. Nanosensors are used to detect food spoilages, contaminants and pathogens [2]

Thousands of nanoparticles are used to fluoresce in various colors when a food pathogen is detected or during food spoilage if a certain chemical is released. Requires few hours to minute for detection

B. Applications in the Environment

1. Carbon dioxide capture and storage. [1]

Zeolites, which is a 3D porous crystal”,contains aluminosilicates with pore size between 0.5 to 1.2nm. By adsorption, it can separate very large capacity of CO2 from air and store it.

2. Carbon dioxide separation from industry flue gas [1]

Spherical nanoparticles of Al2O3 and SiO2, and composites of methanol are used as an absorbent. They physically absorb the carbon dioxide from the flue gas that is passed over them.

3. Transforming CO2 from the atmosphere into carbon nanofibers [1]

By electrolysis of CO2 in an electrolyte of molten carbonates, nanotubes and nanofibers are formed. This process gives valuable products and decrease the global warming effect.

4. Nanoscale clusters of silver as catalyst in the production of propylene oxide rather than larger silver particles. [19]

The nanoscale cluster of silver catalyst has an open shell electronic structure was the reason for its higher selectivity and efficiency. It also decreases the amount of CO2 produced.

5. Clean organic solvents pollutants from underground water [7]

Iron nanoparticles are dispersed through the water hence there is no need to pump water from underground. More effective performance with lower cost than traditional methods.

6. Copper tungsten oxide nanoparticle used to clean oil spills [8]

Photocatalytic copper tungsten oxide nanoparticles can decompose the oil spilled into biodegradable compounds. It can work in air and water, initiated by sunlight, have large surface.

7. Removing volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air [9]

Porous manganese oxide catalyst with embedded gold nanoparticles can degrade VOC in air. It operates at room temperature, has large inner surface area, hence large quantity of adsorption sites.

8. Treatment of contaminant by nanostructure dendritic polymer [20]

Dendritic polymer nanostructure is used for remediation, ultrafiltration of copper from water and lead from soil by adsorption due to its high surface area.

9. Self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports [20]

SAMMS is used to remove contaminants by adsorption. It has large surface area which increases its adsorption properties. It can adsorb chromate, mercury, selenite…etc.

10. Molybdenum disulphide membrane to desalinate water [24]

Molybdenum disulphide membrane is a thin membrane with pores in the nanoscale dimension. Used for desalination of water. It can filter 2 to 5 times the volume of water than conventional ways.

11. Purifying water using TiO2 nanocrystals [25]

Nanocrystalline TiO2 is formed by hydrolysis of a solution of titanium sulfate. The nanocrystalline is used in removes arsenic from water by adsorption.

12. Cleaning industrial water without pumping [24]

Nanoparticles are dispersed into the industrial water to clean the pollutants by chemical reaction which eliminates the harm. Lower cost since there is no need for the water to be pumped.

13. Potassium manganese oxide absorb large quantity of oil [24]

Nanofabric paper towel in oil can absorb twenty times its weight. It is made of small wires of nano sized potassium manganese oxide which increases its absorption.

14. Nanosensor to detect the change in humidity in air and respond [32]

Nanoneedles of ZnSnO3 is developed to sense the moisture in a small environment and response by either absorbing or desorbing water.

C. Applications in Energy

1. Carbon nanofibers (CNF) increase efficiency [1]

CNF is used to combine cycle power plant provides pure O2 hence increase combustion. Increase thermal efficiency of turbines by reducing the heat loss as the volume of N2 is decreased.

2. Increase the efficiency of solar cells using silicon nanowires (SNW) [4]

SNWs have high internal quantum efficiency (can convert 90% of photon absorbed into electron). Manufacturing solar cells with embedded nanowires to obtain its property in cell.

3. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) in windmill blades increase electricity generated [22]

Wind blades are made from epoxy that contains CNTs which increase the strength since CNTs have a strength of 100 times more than steel. CNTs decrease the weight, generate more electricity.

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4. Using graphene layers to store hydrogen in car fuel cells [10]

Graphene can store large capacity of H2 because of its large surface area, it has a thickness of 1 atom, so every carbon is in contact with more H2. It’s low density and favorable surface chemistry.

5. Solar steam converts solar energy into steam directly [11]

Nanoparticles submerged in water are used to capture light, heat up instantly, convert the water into steam. Can work with icy cold water. Do not need panels. Low footprint. High energy efficiency.

6. Using nano polymer to make light bulb mimic the sunlight [12]

Polymer matrix mixed with nanomaterials is used to covert the electricity supplied to the bulb into light. It creates bright light similar to sunlight, shatterproof, can produce different color light.

7. Generating electricity from discarded heat (ex. exhaust pipe of car and chemical plants) using carbon nanotube sheets [13]

Thermo cells using carbon nanotube electrodes to continuously produce electricity from the temperature difference which create a potential difference between the sheets of the CNT.

8. Manufacturing wires with lower resistance [24]

Making wires from carbon nanotube, decreases the resistance of the wire hence reduces the among of energy lost due to resistance and power loss.

9. Efficient nanostructure solar cell [24]

Nanostructure solar cells are easy to install, flexible can be rolled, more efficient electricity production. Low production cost since it can be manufactures using print like process.

D. Applications in cosmetics

1. Nanomaterial properties in formulation of cosmetics [3]

Can improve the absorption of ingredients into the skin because of the presence of small sized lipid vesicles. Prevent decomposition of ingredients by oxidation, hence stabilize the formula.

2. Use of nanoparticles in sunscreen [3]

Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used in cosmetic products especially sunscreen because they are able to block ultra-violet rays effectively. Also, it has a transparent consistency.

3. Nanosilver antibacterial properties [3, 4]

Nanosilver has antibacterial properties that are used to disinfect the mouth bacteria. It is also used in toothpaste and deodorants. It is also use as a preservative agent.

4. Cubsomes used for drug delivery in cosmetics [4]

Cubsomes are nanostructure particles in liquid crystalline phase. They have low viscosity and can be at any dilution level. Can be functionalized and carry hydrophilic and hydropic particles. Low cost.

5. Nanoemulsion in cosmetics to increase stability and deliver active components [4]

Nanoemulsion structure can be altered during preparation. It is safe to use in cosmetics. It has high stability, increase the shelf life of the cosmetic product and can be used to deliver active ingredients.

E. Application in electronics

1. Rechargeable battery with nanoparticles coat

The surface area of electrodes of rechargeable battery is increased by coating it with nanoparticles. This increases the flow of current, increasing the battery’s power and decreases the recharging time.

2. Semiconductor cadmium coat [14]

Coating electronic circuits at room surface with nanocrystals of semiconductor cadmium selenide on flexible plastics enhances the electronic performance since electrons can move faster.

3. Data transmission in servers using silicon nanophotonics [15]

Silicon nanophotonics can be used to transmit data using light instead of electrical signals. It uses a pulse of light to transmit large amount of data between computer servers at high speeds.

4. Nanomagnetic switches in electric circuits [16]

Nanomagnetic switches can replace semiconductor transistors to as a switch in a circuit. Nanomagnetic switches use less power and energy than transistor.

5. Silver nanoparticle ink in instant inkjet circuit [17]

Instant inkjet circuit is a new prototyping technique that is very fast and allow the printing of conductors of a circuit on a board surface that is either rigid or flexible. It uses silver nanoparticle ink.

6. Transmitting more data in purer light [16]

To transmit more data using fiber optic, the light should be pure. It should have about a single wavelength. This can be achieved by storing light in a nanopatterned layer of silicon.

7. Nanowires enable electronic devices to stretch [18]

Silver nanowire have elastic property and high conductivity. Electronic devices that are made from silver nanowires or have silver nanowires embedded in them are stretchable.

8. Carbon nanotube in air vehicles [24]

Introducing carbon nanotube sheets in the production of future air vehicles because of their light weight and conductivity. Used for electromagnetic shielding.

9. Copper nanoparticles to fuse electronics [24]

Copper nanoparticles can be used instead of lead based materials to fuse electronics during assembly. It is more reliable, cheaper and safer than lead.

F. Application in biomaterials

1. Silver nanoparticle as a clinical antimicrobial agent [5]

Silver nanoparticles are used in dentistry as antimicrobial agent. Causes no harm. Kills biofilm of bacteria and yeast existing in oral cavities by inhibiting the replication of bacteria’s DNA.

2. Uses of gold nanoparticles in biomedical [5]

Gold nanoparticle can be used for wound dressings, coating and adhesive bandages in biomedical. It shows antibacterial and antifungal activity. Antimicrobials can be delivered using gold nanoparticles.

3. Coating biomaterial surfaces with iron oxide [5]

Due to iron oxide nanoparticle wettability, it can spread on the surface of biomaterial coating it. This affects the growth of the biofilm and decreases infections causes by biomaterials.

4. Copper oxide nanoparticle use in dentistry in adhesive formulation [5]

Copper oxide nanoparticle increase the strength of the resin-dentin bond and preserve it, does not decrease the mechanical properties of the adhesive system, exhibits antimicrobial properties.

5. Copper oxide nanoparticle as antibacterial agent [5]

Copper oxide nanoparticles is very stable, it damages pathogenic microorganisms and bacteria by binding to the cell wall of the bacteria and increasing the cells oxidative stress level.

6. Titanium oxide nanoparticles in mouthwashes [5]

The incorporation of nanoparticles of titanium oxide in mouthwashes enhances its efficiency by increase its antibacterial properties.

7. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in dentistry [5]

SPION can be used to remove and reduce biofilms from dental implants that are difficult to eliminate. This biofilm can not be penetrated by most antibiotics however it can be penetrated by SPION.

8. Uses of Iron oxide nanoparticles [5]

Iron oxide nanoparticles can be used to improve the repair of tissues, delivery of drugs and in magnetic resonance imaging due to its high surface area, surface chemistry and crystalline contours.

9. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to bleach teeth [5]

Using toothpaste containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles when bleaching teeth instead of placebo toothpaste results in less tooth sensitivity since it can repair the defects in dentin and enamel.

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10. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles to re-mineralize and treat teeth [5]

Calcium phosphate nanoparticles can be used to re-mineralize the dentin of the teeth by releasing a large quantity of calcium and phosphate ions. More remineralization than fluorine.

11. Silica and silicon dioxide nanoparticles enhance fiber reinforces composites [5]

Silica and silicon dioxide nanoparticles are used as fillers in dental fiber composites resins due to its mechanical properties. They add properties like aging and cracking resistance”,increase strength.

12. Chitosan nanoparticles use in oral care [5]

Chitosan is an organic nanoparticle. Due to its chemical surface affinity, it sticks to teeth surface hence can be used to treat teeth by re-mineralizing or can be used to fight biofilm .

13. Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNP) for delivery systems and imaging [5]

CSNP can be used to image cancer cells. Also, can be used for controlled delivering bioactive molecules and drugs. Used in tissue engineering to deliver cells and growth factors.

14. Pathogen detection using graphene based nano sensor [32]

Graphene-based nanosensor is being developed, made by printing graphene on silk that is bioresorbable. It is placed on the surface of tooth enamel to detect pathogens at single cell level bio selectively.

15. Polymeric nanoparticles in drug delivery [5]

Polymeric nanoparticles can be used to deliver drugs to a specific site without having cytotoxicity on other adjacent cells. Used in drug delivery to demineralize the dentin and resin dentin surface.

16. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA) used in dentistry [5]

PLGA nanoparticles is used in endodontics and periodontics due to its antimicrobial properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability. When it biodegrades it forms water and carbon dioxide.

17. Nano immune machines in human body [6]

Nanomachines are designed to be able to move in the blood stream of a human body to kill bacteria and viruses, hence they act as immune machines.

G. Application in biotechnology

1. Gold nanoshells in optical drug delivery [21]

Gold nanoshells in polymer matrix are used for drug deliver. Their photothermal effect is used to control the delivery optically. When a certain temperature the drug in the matrix is released.

2. Fluorescent biological labels [21]

Semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots are used as fluorescent biological labels because they can absorb broad spectrum of light and emit high energy emissions by quantum confinement.

3. Detection of biomolecules using gold nanoparticles [21]

Gold nanoparticles can detect and label variety of biomolecules by electron microscopy because of its contrast quality between optical and electron beam. It can detect protein, glucose oxidase ..etc.

H. Application in oil and gas

1. Nanofluid to enhance drilling fluid [6]

Use of nanofluids to develop drilling mud fluids making them thin and tight. It also improves the fluid’s filtration and rheological properties.

2. Nano-reporters to detect hydrocarbon [6]

Detection of hydrocarbon using fluid that contains nano-reporters in reservoir rock. 2″,2’”,5″,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl is released when the fluid come in contact with hydrocarbons.

3. Release of trapped methane using Nickel ferrite nanoparticles [6]

Methane can be released from the hydrates of natural gas that has a crystalline structure. Nickel ferrite nanoparticles can self-heat and release the methane that is trapped in the hydrate.

4. Cement spacers made from nano emulsion [6]

Nano-emulsion used to produce cement spacers that can clean oil-based mud effectively during cementing from the wellbore surface.

5. Improve adhesion by using nano emulsion [6]

Nano emulsions are stable and high in surface area, can enhance the slurry adhesion between open hole and casing by changing the surface wettability

6. Prevent corrosion of carbon steel using ferromagnetic nanoparticles [6]

A carrier fluid with scattered ferromagnetic nanoparticles in it, decreases the rate of corrosion of carbon steel in an acidic medium since nanoparticle stick to the surface forming a protective layer.

7. Logging using nanorobot in petroleum industry [6]

Use nanorobot that has nanosensors for logging applications. Since it has a small size, it can get closer to formation and give more accurate parameters of real time drilling and formations.

8. Capturing of formation fines to prevent plugged pores in the wellbore [6]

Nanoparticle can prevent the migration of formation fines during fracturing process. This is achieved by the high surface, electrostatic van der waals forces which allow the nanoparticle to capture the fines.

9. Enhance oil recovery [6]

Nanofluid of aluminium oxide and silica can be used to increase oil recovery since it decreases the interfacial tension. Also, due to its transport, retention, emulsion stability properties.

10. Decrease the energy required for recovery methods of heavy oil [6]

Nano nickel catalyst is used to decrease the viscosity of heavy oil (bitumen) because of its large surface which increases the reactivity. As a result, less energy is needed for recovery methods of heavy oil.

11. Reduce shale water invasion using silica nanoparticles [6]

Silica nanoparticles are used to decrease water invasion in shale. They are used to plug the pore throats of shale and reduce its permeability.

12. Improving cement properties using silica nanoparticles [6]

Silica nanoparticles are used to increase the strength of cement, speed of hydration of cement paste faster and allow the design of wanted properties. They are compatible with other additives.

13. Nanosilica in improving oil recovery [6]

Nano silica improve the stability of emulsions, and carbon dioxide foams offering a better control over mobility hence improve the recovery of oil due to retention in viscosity rate.

14. Facilitate flow in channels [6]

Silica nanoparticles are hydrophilic, can improve the flow of binary mixtures of oil and water in nano channel because the nanoparticles decrease the pressure as the displacement increase.

15. Oil-microbe detection tool [23]

“Oil-microbe detection tool” uses optic nanofibers which send a laser of light into the porous rock underground. The reflected ray is analysed, and any bypassed oil resides is detected.

16. Stimulation of oil and gas wells [23]

Viscoelastic Surfactant Stimulation Fluid containing nanoparticles can stimulate gas and oil wells. Has no drawback associated with leaving polymer residue or damage.

17. Nanodiamond drilling bit [23]

Nanodiamonds have very high mechanical strength. Polycrystalline diamond compact is used to make drilling bit for harsh condition drilling

18. Zinc oxide nanoparticles instead of bulk to remove H2S

Zinc oxide nanoparticles are used to increase the efficiency of extracting hydrogen sulphide from drilling mud. Protecting the environment, workers’ health and prevent corrosion of equipment.

I. Application in medicine

1. Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNP) for drug delivery in the body [26]

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The movement of MNP is controlled and guided by magnetic field. MNP enables the delivery of drugs to specific targeted cells in the body. Helps in site specific generation of bone remodelling.

2. Gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (GON) in terahertz (THz) imaging [27]

Tumoral cells of GON has a high affinity to carboxymethylcellulose. It increased the contrast of the images which allowed to easily differentiate between inflamed and normal tissues.

3. Iron based magnetic nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [28]

They have several properties that contributes to its image tuning ability such as its size, shape and magnetic properties. Improved the image contrast in MRI which helped in comparing between healthy and nonhealthy tissues.

4. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) for test vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) or Gram-positive (GP) bacteria [29]

Functional groups are attached to MNP which react with metal oxides give rise to the ability of coating MNP with dopamine which gives it the ability to test for VRE or GP bacteria.

5. Targeted magnetic hyperthermia (TMH) used in the treatment of hyperthermia [29]

TMH is one kind of accelerated growth tumor therapy. MNP is used in this kind of therapy since it acts as a drug delivering vehicle. It provides safer delivery with minimal side effects.

6. Nanoparticle in molecular imaging [30]

Iron oxide gold core shell nanoparticle and iron oxide copolymerization of polypyrene NP decrease the effect of background signals and improves the photostability of molecular images.

7. Nanoparticles in the treatment of lack myelin production due to mutated ERBb gene [31]

Mutated ERBb gene prevents the transcription of myelin gene. It has been found that silver nanoparticle can be used as a treatment since it can begin the transcription process.

8. Advantages of using nanotubes for drug delivery instead of spherical nanoparticles [33]

Nanotubes have large inner volume compared to their diameter can be used as carrier of drug. They have a needle like structure which increases their cell permeability.

9. Nanocarriers in Treating cancer [26]

Nanoparticles, containing cancer drug, are designed with specific ligands that binds to the receptors of cancerous cells. It gets rid of cancerous cells without effecting other healthy cells.

J. Application in agriculture

1. Precision farming technique [32]

Nanocarriers like silica and polymeric nanoparticles are used to offer release of pesticide and herbicides in a controlled way using the concept of nanoencapsulation. Allow control of dosage.

2. Zinc oxide indicate the presence of pesticide [32]

ZnO quantum dots can detect many pesticides (example aldrin, and atrazine). ZnO interact with the leaving group (example chloride) of the pesticide due to its elevated binding affinity.

3. Crop protecton from infection using nanoparticles [32]

ZnO, CuO and TiO2 nanomaterials are used to protect the crops from infections and pathogen. They can prevent the growth of microbes, due to their antifungal and antibacterial properties.

4. Using nanometals to make fertilizers [32]

Nanofertilizer (of Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mo, N ..etc.) reduce the loss of nutrients, improve the absorption of nutrient by plants and soil microorganism. Increase the growth and quality of the crop.

5. Nanosentsor to monitor crops [32]

Carbon nanotube, gold and silver nanoparticles can be used as wireless nanosensors to monitor growth, nutrient, environmental and health conditions.

References

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33. H. S. Virk, Nanomaterials: basic concepts and applications. Pfaffikon, Switzerland: Trans Tech, 2015.

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