A study on media literacy among university students.
Within the century that media landscape has become more rampant day by day, a lot of new media has offered a variety of advantages and opportunities to worldwide. In order to consolidate a proper and appropriate use of media in our daily lives, a certain level of media literacy is essential. Media literacy encompasses the practices that allow people to access, critically evaluate, and create media. Media literacy is not restricted to one medium (Potter, W. James, 2010). There are several existed definitions of media literacy which is officially published, these definitions differ in regard to the content level, the context and the actor involved. Media refers to classic and new media, analogue and digital media, personal as well as mass and social media (Simons et al., 2017). Nowadays people use so many different types of expression and communication in daily life, the concept of literacy is beginning to be defined as the ability to share meaning through symbol systems in order to fully participate in society (Hobbs, 2010). But in generally media literacy defines as the ability to access, analyse, evaluate, create, and act using all forms of communication and understanding the messages deliver by the media. David Buckingham (2007) has come up with four key concepts that “provide a theoretical framework which can be applied to the whole range of contemporary media and to ‘older’ media as well: Production, Language, Representation, and Audience. In addition, the increasing presence and use of media in today’s society emphasises the importance of media literacy (Buckingham 2007).
Over the past few years, the growth of social media has been near exponential. When media is providing an environment for reporting a story or a news, it influences how the university students understands and evaluates it. For example, university students will only tend to know about the things that the mass media are dealing with and take the order of priority assigned to different issues (Schmidt, 2012). Wineburg (2016) conducted a study of Stanford Graduate School of Education testing high school, college, and university students’ media literacy suggested most young people don’t have a good understanding of what constitutes “fake news” vs. real news. The result in the study stated that, students couldn’t tell the difference between sponsored articles and real news stories. Second, students didn’t bother to verify where photos online came from and blindly accepted the photos’ stated contexts (Wineburg, 2016). We often blindly accept the information that we receive through the media with disastrous results and we also develop brand loyalties that have little to do with the quality of the product (Silverblatt et al., 2014). Silverblatt (2014) has also argued that the media have transformed the way we think about the world, each other, and ourselves. Media presentations convey cumulative messages that shape, reflect and reinforce attitudes, values, behaviours, preoccupations, and myths that define a culture. Within this context, media literacy education has had an impact on students’ behaviours and attitudes with regard to alcohol and tobacco usage and eating disorders. In addition, media literacy “interventions” have helped curb aggressive and anti-social behaviours (Silverblatt et al., 2014). It was a bad phenomenon for higher education level student to lack of media literacy competence. For future development, these issues and problems should be consider well to prevent misunderstanding and ignorance of the public and higher education person toward the media.
Research objectives and research questions
This research study is about media literacy among university students. Hence, the two main objectives for this study is:
i. To discover the impacts of media literacy to university students.
ii. To explore the factors of absence of media literacy among university student.
Question 1: What are the impacts of media literacy to university students in their daily life?
Question 2: What are the factors of absence of media literacy among university student?
Question 3: Will media literacy bring disadvantages and negative impacts to university student?
Question 4: How to measure media literacy among university student?
Significant of study
Media literacy, as a survival tool, aims to foster engagement and critical reflection about media that provides students the knowledge and awareness to become more curious and active in society. Under these tenets of media literacy can be seen as prioritizing the development of students’ analytical and critical skills as they increasingly engage the media (McMahon 2003). Other than that, the existence of the individuals with high media literacy leads to increase in the media quality because such individuals require more realistic messages of higher quality (Ulaş et al., 2012). Herbert Zettl (1998) believes that anything having so much influence on individuals or society as a whole deserves to be critically and carefully analyzed and examined. He stated that the knowledge of how a specific mass medium such as television operates, how we react to its specific audio and visual stimuli, and how we use it to clarify, intensify, and interpret significant events around us is an essential prerequisite for the effective and responsible production and discerning consumption of media messages. The result of this study can provide the main reason and factor that restrain the media literacy of university student and provide an insight of the positive impact of media literacy that will improve their quality of life by gaining a better evaluation on media contents and it will also provide useful information and a quick path for future study of media literacy education and media training programme.
Throughout the most recent thirty years media training and media cultivation have turned out to be progressively intriguing as learning areas. The primary errand of this branch of knowledge is to make express and consider the effect of concurrent media culture, particularly the open procedures of both simple and advanced media. In recent decades, the idea concept of media literacy has become more and more prevalent in policy initiatives around the globe, in research ventures, and in instructive practice (Sirkku Kotilainen, 2010). Simultaneous with the improvement of the field of media proficiency, researchers and scholars have tried to set up definitions for being media educated, and they keep on looking for agreement on the different subsets of the more extensive field, for example, information literacy, digital literacy, critical literacy, and news literacy. Mostly, researchers conducting quantitative research method have shown that media education intercessions can have positive results, in view of proportions of message appreciation, composing and basic thinking or media structures and impact scales (Ashley et al.”,2013). Moreover, media literacy would help direct consideration regarding how individuals undergo the huge stream of media messages in their ordinary lives, how they settle on separating choices, how they effectively make associations of images in the messages with educated meanings, and how they build novel significance for themselves (Simons et al., 2017). Media literacy requires teaching about media—the language it uses along with its narrative, codes, and conventions. Explicit instruction in media is good practice for at least two reasons (Considine et al., 2009).
Media literacy will strengthen the general public interest to boost socio-political conditions, change voters to participate actively publicly conversations and deliberations to have an effect on change, and empower voters to meet their rights and obligations. But regardless of what the project, body or website, media educators share some beliefs. Media educators apprehend that meaning however reality is made through media suggests that understanding 3 interacting elements: the assembly method together with technological, economic, functionary and legal constraints, the text, and therefore the audience, receiver and finish -user. during a slightly totally different formulation of the identical comprehension, Considine and Haley (1999) demostrated that there are few principles of media that is:
1.media are established, and construct reality.
2.media have commercial values and implications.
3.media have ideological and political ramifications.
4.form and content are connected in every medium, every one of which has a one of a kind aesthetic, codes and traditions.
5.receivers is able to arrange significance meaning in media.
Media acquirement analysis will furnish perspective into the values of media communicators by distinguishing the well-liked reading of the narrative. Media communicators establish a most popular reading, within which the text dictates the responses of the audience. the well-liked reading asks the audience to assume the role, perspective, and orientation of the heroes and heroines, who could also be surrogates for the media someone (Silverblatt et al., 2014). However, Potter (2014) concluded that media literacy literature is filled with fascinating insights and stimulating arguments, there’s one thing missing—there is no proof that changes publically policy or academic establishments can create important and lasting improvement within the public’s level of media literacy.
Lipschultz and Hilt (2008) proposed that the mensuration of media acquirement among academics may be helpful in 3 contexts. First, it’s necessary for personal academics to be ready to live their own media acquirement competencies and replicate on their improvement. However, it’s not continuously necessary for all academics inside the varsity to possess nonheritable high levels of media acquirement, nor to possess the identical reasonably media competencies; it’s a lot of necessary and helpful to spot the media competencies of the team of academics as a full and to work out whether or not all necessary media acquirement competencies are drawn. skilled development will facilitate academics to enhance one another and ultimately come through the academic goals for his or her students.
Other than that, Chen et al. (2011) also proposed a promising framework that unpacks new media literacy as two continua from consuming to prosuming literacy and from functional to critical literacy. Specifically, the ‘consuming’ literacy was defined as the ability to access media message and to utilize media at different levels, while ‘prosuming’ literacy ability to produce media contents (e.g. messages and artifacts). According to Chen et al. (2011), the consuming aspect should be integrated and implied in the prosuming aspect. For instance, an individual has to read and understand others’ ideas before they create media contents to respond. Meanwhile, the ‘functional’ literacy refers to individuals’ ‘textual meaning making and utilize of media tools and content’ (Chen et al., 2011), while ‘critical’ literacy their potential to analyse, evaluate, and critique media. Similarly, the functional aspect provides an essential basis for the critical aspect. For example, individuals may fail to make their great grasp of socio-cultural contexts of the media explicit due mostly to their unfamiliarity with the technical characteristics of new media tools/languages.
Lin et al. (2013) propose a refined framework that aims to address the two limitations of Chen et al.’s (2011) framework. Like Chen et al.’s framework, Lin et al.’s (2013) framework acknowledges new media literacy as indicated by two continua that consist of four types of literacy. Furthermore, our framework further unpacks the four types of new media literacy into ten more fine-grained indicators, and proposes another new divide that distinguishes to a higher level. There are few aspects to measure and explain media literacy in Lin’s new media literacy framework, which is consuming skill, understanding, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Another five indicators are introduced for the prosuming media literacy which is creation, participation, production, distribution and prosuming skill.
First of all, in this study applied a qualitative research method with interpretive approach. Interpretive paradigm focused on the subjectivity, the pluralism, and the dynamism of an organization. In this research, the interpretive approach will able to provide the understanding of certain features of patterns and symbols that reflect on the issues that deficient the media literacy of university students. Reinforcement of the subjectivity supported the interpretive researchers not to concentrate on subjects such as technologies and hierarchies but on how humans use communication to explain and identify the meaning of the subjects (Trujillo, 1992). Interviews are highly useful techniques to inquire into people’s perceptions, meanings, the definition of situations and interpretations of “truth” (Punch, 2005). In exploring what is the factors of media literacy deficiency and constitutes of media literacy among university students, I took the informants conceptions in their interview as the point of interaction with multimedia content. The purpose of the interviews is to capture possible variation in conceptions of media literacy in a rich and comprehensive way. The interview questionnaire will be distributed to the informants with face to face communication. 33 informants were selected from different environments and faculties so that this design can incorporate a diversity of context. The 33 informants were divided into 11 categories and 3 informants will be selected from each category which is:
1. Centre for Foundation Studies
2. Institute of Postgraduate Studies and Research
3. Faculty of Arts and Social Science (FAS)
4. Faculty of Business and Finance (FBF)
5. Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology (FEGT)
6. Faculty of Information and Communication Technology (FICT)
7. Faculty of Science (FSc)
8. Institute of Chinese Studies (ICS Kampar)
9. Faculty of Accountancy and Management (FAM)
10. Faculty of Medicine and Health Science (FMHS)
11. Faculty of Creative Industries (FCI)
Based on the theorical framework of media literacy, 6 items will considered and investigated in this research to determine the factors and constitutes of media literacy, which start from Social constructivism, languages, positionality, politics of representation, production and lastly social & environmental justice. The data will be recorded directly face to face to provide information for the research questions. In the interview process, few multimedia advertisement (radio, newspaper, magazine etc.) were selected as a reference to let the informants evaluate the key messages behind by their own words and interpretations. Different data will be collected and analyse properly followed by using the method of thematic analysis. Thematic analysis is a method for identifying, interpreting, analysing and reporting patterns associated with the themes and codes within the data collected (Emerson, Fretz, & Shaw, 1995). Furthermore, few eliminations and processing of the beginning ideas or answers for the themes will carry out to make sure that the analysis will be associate and equivalent to the interview data, which were formed from the theoretical framework understanding of media literacy. The results will provide a “verity” of the study on media literacy among university students.