leaves mixed with chopped wheat hay and sugar cane molasses in a ratio of 370:540:90 respectively on DM basis. After that this silage was added in the total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating cows at the rate of 180 g/kg DM as replacement of wheat silage and hay. Control cows intake more digestible DM/day than the Moringa oleifera group it was not observed in milk production which is more in the Moringa oleifera group. Milk fat content was also more in Moringa oleifera group, while protein content of milk was more in the control group. (Cohen-Zinder., 2016).
The enhance in milk yield and its quality as a result of application of M. oleifera leaf was due to the positive effect of the Moringa leaf in the rumen of ruminant animals. It has reported that it increase rumen microbial population found in the rumen environment (Sanchez et al., 2006). Another possible reason for the improvement in milk yield of cows fed with M. oleifera leaves might be due to the reason that M. oleifera leaf have good rumen bypass attributes which is vital for animal productivity (Sarwatt et al., 2004). The above mentioned researches demonstrate the potential utilization of M. oleifera leaf as feed substitute in upgrading livestock performance.
E3. Egg production and quality
Eggs are the nutrient rich food and are available in low cost. Both the rich and the poor family in many societies can afford that. For tackling the issue of mal-nutrition the utilization of eggs as a human diet plays important role. Due to the enhacing demand of eggs there is requirement of ways of improving its production at a low feed cost both in terms of quantity as well as quality (Al-Harthi et al., 2009). Researches has been find to improve poultry production at a low feed cost by the application of Moringa oleifera leaf meal in poultry diet (Abbas, 2013). Recent studies have reported that the addition of M. oleifera leaf powder in poultry diets increase the egg production as well as quality of eggs in poultry birds (Gakuya et al., 2014; Lu et al., 2016). It has been reported the addition of 2.5% and 5% of M. oleifera leaf powder in layer birds diet increase the egg number per week, egg weight, egg width, egg surface, yolk height, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk ratio as compared to the control diet (Ebenebe et al., 2013). Kakengi et al. (2007) reported that when 5% M. oleifera leaf powder was used as a replacement to sun-flower seed meal in layer diet there is significant increase (P ˂ 0.05) in egg weight. Moreover , Lu et al. (2016) found that when 5% level of M. oleifera leaf powder include in layer ration it significantly improved the yolk colour and protein absorption no any harmfull effects on the laying performance when compared to the control diet. Whereas , the inclusion level of 1, 3 and 5% M. oleifera whole seed meal in layer hens feed significantly enhance egg yolk colour, but significantly decrease body weight, feed intake, the rate of egg laying, egg weight, and egg mass; therefore its inclusion at these levels is undesirable (Mabusela et al., 2018). Presence of high xanthophylls in M. oleifera leaf has been control over the colour improvement in egg yolk, egg yolk colour is used as a egg quality indication by consumers (Pasaporte et al., 2014). It should be exercised that M. oleifera leaf powder might hamper the performance of laying when used above 15% inclusion level (Abou-Elezz et al., 2011; Kakengi et al., 2007; Olugbemi et al., 2010).
F. Harmful compounds in moringa
Apart from the above enlisted nutritional content, M. oleifera has been found to have a relatively low amount of antinutritional factor such as phytates, saponins, tannins and oxalates (Shih et al., 2011). According to Stevens et al. (2015) and Makkar and Becker (1996), the phytate and saponin content in M. oleifera seed was 2.23%, 3.89% respectively and phytate and saponin content in Moringa leaf was 2.5%, 5.0% respectively. These were lower than those noted in other legumes for example soya bean meal. Likewise, it has reported that oxalate content in M. oleifera leaf (2.754 g/100 g) was lower that Spinach leaf = 12.57 g/100 g, Green amaranth leaf =10.05 g/100 g and Curry leaf = 2.77 g/100 g (Radek & Savage, 2008). The oxalate content of Moringa leaves are insoluble. While spinach leaves have high iron and calcium, contain 12.57 g/100 g oxalates, among which 11.89g/ 100 g are soluble oxalates (Radek and Savage 2008). These soluble oxalates may cause kidney stone in livestock. These findings demostrate that moringa leaves can be provide as a livestock feed without the any danger of kidney stone formation.
Table 3. Soluble and insoluble oxalates content in different leafy vegetable in comparison with moringa leaves (Noonan and Savage 1999; Radek and Savage 2008).
Vegetable/plants Total oxalates Soluble oxalates Insoluble oxalates
(mg/kg) (mg/kg ) (mg/kg )
Spinach 125″,762 118″,998 6763
Green amaranths 100″,563 46″,747 53″,817
Purple amaranths 81″,060 35″,580 45″,480
Curry 27″,749 – 27″,749
Moringa 27″,540 – 27″,540
Onion 5328 – 5328
Coriander 5132 – 5132
Radish 2090 – 2090
In Moringa, tannins were 12 g /kg of DM, whereas 65% supplementation of Leucaena leucocephala leaves in the diet of ruminants may give rise to tannins and phytates up to 29.40 mg /100g of dry matter (Udom and Idiong 2011). Some other fodder tree leaves viz. Sesbania sesban, Acacia angustissima, and Acacia cyanophylla have 31, 66, and 38 g/kg tannin contents, respectively (Ahn et al., 1989; Kaitho 1997; Salem et al., 1999). Apart from this, moringa leaves have deficient in lectins, trypsin, and amylase inhibitors (Ferreira et al., 2008), but have sugar-modified glucosinolates (Fahey et al., 2001; Bennett et al., 2003; Newton et al., 2010), although their concentration varies greatly depending upon the soil type, climate and stage of growth (Farnham et al., 2000, 2004). These compounds are being reported as agents which are responsible for the bitter or pungent taste of Moringa leaves (Doerr et al., 2009). Although moringa leaves have saponins, which provides a bitter taste to livestock while eating leaves, these do not have harmful effects on animals as well as human beings (Makkar and Becker 1996, 1997). It has been reported that extracts of Moringa leaves contain saponins = 4.7-5 g/kg of DM, and so they do not cause harmful effect on livestock and human beings (Liener 1994; Makkar and Becker 1997; Price 2000; Foidl et al. 2001). In order to find out the moringa’s effects on health, research related to bioactive compounds and their phytochemicals requires more attention to detect the catabolism and absorption of these compounds after consumption and researches should be directed towards these areas.
Moringa seeds contain more amount of phytates and glucosinolates as compare to other vegetative parts (Oliveira et al., 1999; Foidl et al., 2001; Ferreira 2004). The presence of alkaloids and saponins (in safe ranges, as told earlier) and the least amount of tannins are cause of bitter taste of the seeds, but these unwanted taste can be eliminated by using several treatments like boiling or extraction processes, gene manipulation, and supplementation with methionine or threonine (Enneking and Wick 2000).
The presence of antivitamin agent in livestock feed may cause kidney and liver damage (Bone 1979). However, moringa leaves are rich in vitamins (Makkar and Becker, 1997; Nambiar and Seshadri, 1998; Nambiar and Seshadri, 2001) and there is no study available on the presence of antivitamin agents or activities in moringa leaves, but it has been reported that moringa leaves and moringa leaf meal are good sources of feed for livestock, fish, rabbits, laying hens, broiler chickens, growing sheep, and cross-bred cows (Afuang et al., 2003; Sarwatt et al., 2004; Dongmeza et al., 2006). Moringa leaves are palatable for livestock aside the antinutritional factors. These studies demonstrate that moringa have rich in nutrient than other leafy vegetables or fodders.
G.Conclusion and future perceptive
M. oleifera has gained popularity as a source of dietary feed stuff for livestock and
feed industry. Current and ongoing researches have revealed that M. oleifera is a vital plant that having multifunction approach in livestock production systems. Studies have revealed the rich nutrients content and bioactive compounds in M. oleifera leaves, seeds and stems indicating that its application in animal feed improve nutritional status and livestock production. However, information about nutritional composition of other plant-parts of plant including the flowers, pods and roots is scars. On addition, M. oleifera consumption has been reported to improve endogenous antioxidants as well as to prevent excessive production of free radicals. However, further research are required to investigate the bioavailability of its nutrients and phytochemicals upon consumption. There are positive reported on the use of M. oleifera in livestock diets as it increase livestock health, performance and product quality, despite that there is presence of some anti nutritional factors which might be reduce the inclusion level. Moreover, research focusing on effect of the M. oleifera plant consumption on performance of other livestock species (e.g. cattle, sheep, goat) and products quality (e.g. milk, meat, egg “,wool quality) and other areas considering environmental impact and socio-economic impact would be arising curiosity and more researches required towards these area.