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Can a building be both Curvilinear and Angular? Introduction In this study I want to explore the use of angular and curvilinear architecture used in buildings and whether other architects are combining the two into one design and if not, then why? My plan is to explore all the architects that have inspired my pavilion and to further my research into their work. The architects I am choosing to focus on, include: Zaha Hadid who’s well known for her unique curvilinear designs, Renzo Piano his most renowned design is the shard which is famous for its angular design, and finally Daniel Libeskind is another one mainly inspired to use angular styles in his designs. I find it fascinating how all these architects stick to a certain style of designing and I want to discover more of their work and maybe why they only stick to one style. It’ll interesting to find out their own inspirations which started them off, because they are my main inspiration for this project and potentially young architects in the world. I have always loved Zaha Hadid’s’ curvilinear architecture and I used her style to help me create the main structure of my design. Renzo Piano is famous for the shard, one of the most famous monuments in London. His design on the shard was so simple yet so unique and different and that’s what really helped me when I wanted to add more to my pavilion. Lastly Daniel Libeskind has a similar style to Renzo but harsher. He was again a big part of my design process. Cultural and Historical Context Angular and Curvilinear is a new form of architecture it plays a big part in how modernist architecture has evolved over the years. We went from brutalist designs to more sleek, angular and curvilinear architecture. All these styles are part of modernist architecture. Modern architecture first appeared at the end of the 19th century from revolutions in technology, engineering and building materials, and from wanting to change from historical architectural styles and to design something that was purely functional and new. This style of architecture began when the revolution in materials came, they began to use cast iron, plate class, and reinforced concrete. These few materials made building structures stronger, taller and lighter, allowing architects and engineer to experiment with shapes, designs and styles, moving away from basic rectangular buildings and making something new, unusual and unique. Many architects in the 20th century started to experiment with new materials and techniques, they had the chance to design new styles to create extraordinary and strange pieces of 1903-1904 in Paris two architects; Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage started to use reinforced concrete, reinforced steel was previously only used for industrial structure such as building apartments building. The best thing about reinforced concrete that drew architects to it was that it can moulded into any shape, meaning architects don’t have to be restricted to the materials, allowing them to design out of this world and new architecture. In addition, a new movement of architecture emerged in the 1960s named Postmodernism, it spurred due to the reaction against the austerity, formality and lack of variety in modernist architecture. This movement was introduced by the architect and urban planner Denise Scott Brown and architectural theorist Robert Venturi in their book Learning from Las Vegas. The style flourished from the 1980s through the 1990s. Frank Gehry was one of the most renowned postmodernist architects of the time. He started using prefabricated industrial materials, to give himself the freedom of designing unusual forms and styles. Postmodern architecture in the 21st century developed into contemporary architecture and using angular and faceted, and fluid and curvilinear styles in architecture to create new, high tech and astonishing architecture. the main purpose of a contemporary building in the 21st century is designed to be noticed as monuments rather than buildings and to astonish the public into seeing something different and unique. Some features still include concrete structures that were used in the modernist period, however architects are now using glass and aluminium to create effects by wrapping them round creating facades, and cantilevered sections which may hang over the street. A few of the most extraordinary works of contemporary architecture are art museums or major monuments. Zaha Hadid; Heydar Aliyev Center: The Heydar Aliyev Center is a gallery hall and museum based in Baku, Azerbaijan. It took 6 years to build, the construction started in 2007 and was completed in 2012. They wanted to have something unique, something which is looking at the future, it gives off the effect that the ground rises up to form the building’s wave-like shell. Zaha didn’t want it to be something neutral, and keep it blending into the background. She wanted her architecture to make a statement. The architectural design is so sleek, the finishes make it appear crisp and fresh, I really like how the architecture on the outside continues and flows into the interior design of the building. The Heydar Aliyev center is one of my favourite architectural designs by Zaha Hadid, you can really see her special touches that turns a normal art gallery into a Zaha Hadid art gallery. She is renowned for her work using curvilinear styles for her designs. For my project I really wanted to use Zaha Hadid as my biggest inspiration, I felt like her work on this particular building shaped the main structure of my project. The use of curvilinear movement in this specific building was very important for its location, you can easily see where Zaha Hadid’s main inspiration came from. This building is located in Azerbaijan which is part of the middle east, in the middle east a lot of the time its associated with its hot climates and desserts. It is visible how she has used the formation of sand dunes to her own benefit in this design. In addition, Azerbaijan and the middle east are well known to be quite Islamic in religion and culture, where they wear neutral coloured clothing, this again is incorporated into the flowing white movements of the building. The Heydar Aliyev Center is considered more as a monument than an art gallery/ museum. I can imagine some people’s opinions on it being quite plain and not to exciting depending #on what kind of architecture they are interested by. Zaha Hadid mainly used curvilinear styles in her work and she was considered “Queen of Curves”, however she never used more than just one style in her work such as faceted or angular architecture, which may be argued that it would have made her work more interesting or exciting. The use of just white for the interior and exterior may be seen as basic or not exciting, also, I feel like if she incorporated more neutral colours into the design it would still be appropriate and work with the environment, but it would add more character and make it more different. However, the use of the large black squared window makes it more than just a white block of concrete and glass. However, through my research I have repeatedly read the same quote on a number of different articles; “as pure and sexy as Marilyn’s blown skirt”, this iconic quote describes the architectural structure in the best way, its fluidity, the sleek, pureness of this designs describes just that. Renzo Piano; The Shard: The Shard, also known as the shard of glass, due to its appearance and materials, is one of the most famous monuments in the UK. This extraordinary piece of architecture stands at around 310 metres high, making it the tallest building in the United Kingdom and the European Union. The plan for the Shard right from the start was for it to become an iconic monument known all over the world, made for the people. This particular deign has always stood out to me as the definition of modern London, it fits in with the atmosphere, yet it stands out in such a distinct way that you can not miss it. I have always loved the Shard, its representation of London has always been its best feature, also I like the way the modernist style of the shard continues into the interior design of the building, giving it the true London atmosphere for foreign guests. In addition, I love the way they gave it the effect of single shards of metal combined into one solid shape, it differentiates it from a simple office block and makes it that extra bit special. The simplicity of the building keeps it from being over the top, it has a subtle way of expressing London. It is not only used as an attraction for tourists, it holds a 26-floor office complex, occupied by approximately 32 companies over about 10 businesses, three restaurants (Aqua Shard, Oblix and Hutong), the five star “Shangri-La Hotels and Resort”, 10 residential apartments and a viewing gallery (The View from The Shard). As I mentioned above the shard was designed to fit in the big city of London, much like how Zaha Hadid designed the Heydar Aliyev center to fit to its environment. Most of Renzo Pianos designs stand out but fit well in their chosen location, he is renowned to use quite angular styles of architecture incorporated into his designs however some of his buildings including or the IBM Travelling Pavilion, which he has managed to combine both a slight bit of curvilinear and angular in his designs which isn’t found very much. In this aspect Renzo is different to Zaha as he has made buildings with angular styles as well as curvilinear. Many people may view Renzo Pianos work as basic and a waste of monument space, I believe that they may feel like we have enough monuments in London which are more symbolical such as big ben, the house of commons or even the London eye. The shard has been described as a “vertical city, for thousands of people to work and enjoy in”. It may be seen as a place designed for people willing to pay such high prices to access a place such as the shard which was made “for the people”. In addition, I believe that some people may view the overall final design as not exciting and could include more bold colours to incorporate the night life and lifestyle of London. Some critics have spoken out about the shard “It offers no civic forum or function, just luxury flats and hotels. It stands apart from the City cluster and pays no heed to its surrounding context in scale, materials or ground presence.” I understand where this critic may view The Shard however, he needs to remember that it is more than just a tower in the middle of London, it holds the symbolism of London which is very important to represent in such a touristic city. Daniel Libeskind; Royal Ontario Museum: The Royal Ontario Museum is located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is one of the largest museums in North America but the biggest in Canada, it is one of the renowned monuments millions of visitors go to visit in Canada. The Royal Ontario museum was actually established in 1912 however the Daniel Libeskind extension to it was not built until 2007. The Extension was named “The Crystal” due to the materials and faceted style giving off the effect and appearance of a crystal. Libeskind had the goal of making the outdated museum more open and Modern. This is for me the most inspiring and interesting piece of architectural design. I love how Daniel Libeskind turned this Romanesque style monument and converted it into a contemporary faceted masterpiece. I view this beautiful design as a way of showing the evolution of what we used to design to what we now can create with the new technologies and materials we have available. The patterns, cladding and use of shapes to create the 21st century look adds to the faceted architectural design, in my opinion I feel that the use of these techniques on the extension has represented the museum/gallery from the outside, this can be seen as portraying the artwork from the inside out. This modernist creation has been made from 25% glass, and 75% of aluminium all of which is sitting on a steel frame. In the Romanesque architecture period the majority of architectural structures were made from brick or stone featuring a roman statue figure on the exterior walls, “the crystal” has really updated the look and is more likely to attract a viewer or tourist to this bizarre design. In addition, this crystal extension looks like a night life attraction in the night due to the coloured lights projected onto the building’s exterior. When this extension was first constructed it received a lot of criticism from the public eye. Many viewed this extension as a destruction to a historical piece of architecture and not fitting in its place, and the building losing its heritage and structure. Also, an architect critic named Lisa Rochon complained that “the new ROM rages at the world”,” was oppressive, angsty and hellish. Some other architectural critics have gone to lengths as saying, “it is one of the ten ugliest buildings in the world”, I feel like the criticism this building has received was quite extreme and slightly exaggerated to an extent especially including it in the rank of calling it “one of the ten most ugliest buildings” however I can see where Lisa is coming from, I see how this design can be seen as quite harsh or aggressive to some. Daniel Libeskind is most famous for his unusual faceted and angular designs which is shown on every one of his designs. Again, Libeskind is very similar to Renzo and Hadid in this aspect, you never see these architects combining more than one style of architecture in their designs. Zaha is Famous for curvilinear designs and being known as “Queen of Curves”, Renzo sticks with simpler angular deigns, and Libeskind is one of the most well known to use facets on his designs. Final Conclusion At the end of my study I was able to explore the use of angular and curvilinear architecture used in buildings and whether other architects are combining the two into one design. From the findings in my research I have discovered that it is not that common to get an architectural design to consist of more than one type of architectural styles. In my research on Renzo Piano, I found that he had done a pavilion that consisted of both angular and curvilinear styles (IBM Travelling Pavilion), however it was not comparable to my final project which you could call expressive in the way I have designed it using curvilinear, angular and faceted styles to create it. I have researched all I can into my chosen buildings/architects to find out as much information I can on why or if they use angular, faceted and curvilinear styles all in one design, I found out if they do, however I struggled to find explanations as to why they did not combine the styles. These three architects were the main inspirations I looked up to for when I was designing my model. At the start of my designing I was set on creating a architectural structure either angular or curvilinear, I had two designs which I had designed and had to decide between, finally I decided to go with my curvilinear design which was inspired by Zaha Hadid’s designs. As I continued to develop my design, I struggled with finding the right fit for what I wanted to create, I went on the create some random models, one of which was inspired by The Shard and was entirely angular, I experimented with combining that angular model with the curvilinear one I was set on. I created one last model incorporating both designs and finally created the pavilion which fit all my expectations. Into the model I also added a faceted structure entirely inspired by the Royal Ontario Museum. If I were to have more time on this project I would have liked to research into more designers/Architects whose work is similar to the ones I studied, also I feel like if I did further research on other designers it may have helped me to evolve my model more and create something more unique. I definitely feel more educated and informed on the designs that helped to inspire me, it has given me the chance to learn more about how other people have viewed these designs which I found rather interesting to read other opinions on a design which I am a fan of, some of which the comments I found slightly overly criticized and I did not agree with.

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