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Autopsy based study of death due to two wheeler motor cycle accidents

In the present study, motorcycle riders included 84 (63.64%) and pillion riders comprised 48 (36.36%) of 132 cases. Jan Mohammadi N et al (2009)38 study showed that 84.3% of motor cyclist riders and 15.7% pillion riders. Findings have been reported by Fitzharris.M et al (2009)39 showed 66.7% of riders and 33.3% of pillion riders. Stella et al (2002)24 reported 89.74% of riders and 10.36% of pillion riders.

Among total 132 cases of death due to two wheeler motorcycle accidents studied, males (82.57%) were more as compared to females (17.43%)and 23 (17.43%), male to female ratio obtained was 4.7:1. This might be due to the fact that male are more active in our society and uses two wheeler commonly. Similar findings were noted in other studies [8, 9, 10, 11]. Our findings regarding sex ratio did not match with Rajeev Kumar.B et al, (2010)77 who found greater sex ratio in the range of 10:1. The predominance of male can be explained by the fact that males lead a more active life, travel more, drive more and so are exposed to the hazards of traffic, accidents and trauma. Females generally stay at home, but now there is increasing trend of RTA among females too due to their awareness regarding career and their active participation in socio-economic activities.

Most Vulnerable age groups that is the active population of the study resulting were those persons of third and fourth decade 21-40 years (56.06%) followed by second decade 11-20 years (14.40%) and fifth decade 41-50 years (13.64%) which is in harmony with most of the studies conducted [12, 40]. After 40years and above there is decreased frequency of accidents, On the contrary persons between 20-39 years are more commonly involved because of these age groups are found using the roads frequently and are generally rash driver. The present study has shown that young adults, predominantly males in their most productive year of life are especially prone to accidents. A large number of cases in the young age group can be justified by the fact that young persons in this age group are at the peak of enthusiasm, energy and creativity. They lead active life and have the tendency to take undue risk like speed driving, overtake wrongly, triple riding of bike, boarding over running vehicle etc. which expose them to the hazards of accidents and injuries.

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In our study it was observed that incidences were more in the Urban areas this reveals the common outdoor working time of the urban regions which similar with observations made in different studies [89, 38, 8″,]. It was observed 33.33% victims were from rural areas and 66.67% were from urban areas. In contrast Sinha ND et al (2010)88 found Victims from rural areas 237 (65.83%) as compared to urban areas 123 (34.17%). Reddy Ananda et al (2014)63 found most of the victims from rural and semi-urban areas. This might be due to the fact that study was conducted in rural population.

The present study showed that incidences were more common among graduates and high school certificates (73.47%). This might be due to the fact that in metropolitan city, most of the population uses two-wheeler motorcycles for their jobs, colleges, school etc. Similar findings was noted by other author[76]. In contrast, Neeta PN et al (2016)72 observed that 40% were uneducated followed by graduate and above 23%.

The present study showed more frequently involved groups in two wheeler accidents were unskilled, semi-skilled, students and semi-profession workers (65.16%) Among occupation wise distribution we found that almost 68.18% were employed and 31.82% were unemployed. This might be due to fact that there is shifting of educated and skilled population from rural areas for job and employment purpose in metropolitan city and most common motorcycle accident injured patients were generally laborers. This finding is consistent with other studies [21, 72].

The present study shows that maximum victims were from lower middle class and upper middle class 56 (71.97%). These findings were consistent with [88, 77]. This is because of usage of two wheeler is increasing in populations from different sets of people. This can be interpreted as to the affordability of the people to maintain the vehicle.

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The present study shows that there was not much difference between married and unmarried victims involved in two-wheeler accidents. Married victims were 70 (53.03%) and unmarried were 62 (46.97%) which is similar to observations of other studies [63, 68, 73]. This might be due to fact that they are prime bread earners of the family and thus remained outdoors during most of the day.

The present study shows most two-wheeler accidents occurred in month of January to May (68.95%) which is consistent with other studies [63, 7]. Our study is in contrast with other studies [80, 87, 90] this might be due to the fact that the study was conducted in metropolitan city, where there is heavy rainfall leading to water logging in most of the time in month of June-September. Hence, road transport especially by two-wheeler is heavily hampered.

In our study peak timing of occurrence of RTA were at mornings (21.97%) and evening hours (56.06%) which is consistent with other studies [26, 21]. The reason for this timing might be due to the crest of accidents during these hours co-exists with soaring traffic density, traffic congestion due to office hours, urge to reach destination in time. This is probably due to, during morning hours most people are in a hurry to reach their office complex and heavy and unequal distribution of incidents occurred when rush was too heavy on road at these working hours and the rider is generally exhausted after day‘s work.

In our study it was observed that maximum number of accidents 74 (56.06%) occurred in summer followed by 41 (31.06%) in winter and least number i.e 17 (12.88%) in rainy season. This might be due to fact that high incidences of accidents during summer are closely related to travelling activity of people due to vacations, marriage ceremonies, etc and during winter, there is longer hours of night, poor visibility to vehicle drivers in the darkness and early hours of the day due to foggy weather conditions and slow reaction time due to extreme cold affecting both drivers and road users. This finding is not consistent with other studies [73, 91, 87, and 80]. The slight difference in seasonal variations as compared to our study can be due to difference in study region and different climatic variations.

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