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Carbon compensation

Technologies leads the current world. In every steps of our daily life directly or indirectly are connected to computer technologies. From family to official aspects everywhere now we are depending on computer related devices. Smartphone is one of the greatest inventions of current technologies. This smartphone is using for various reasons e.g. general communication, social communication, entertainment, business, job, education, medical treatment and for many other purposes. People are depending on smartphone hugely so rapidly growing smartphone users to make their life easier and valuable. As a result, various types of smartphone applications are dramatically producing in IT market that makes the world market economy stronger too. Smartphone and mobile app user are increasing not only in developed countries also in developing countries.

Impulsively smartphone user is increasing in Germany as well that proves by Figure 3.1. And worldwide smartphone impacts financially can see at Figure 3.2

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Fuel station, Oil buyer (private transportation sector) and Certificate Organization to give certificate for compensation of carbon emissions are interrelated in whole process for instant certified compensation of carbon emissions. So, need to understand each sector for the whole process.

Simply questionnaires survey helps to find out for specific amount of qualitative or quantitative issues but cannot get proper information of cultural characteristics of group as culture shared values, attributes, norms, practices, languages materials things of group of people. [8]

Yes, for this research also the author implemented some questionnaires surveys because ‘The questionnaire is a product of the ethnographer’s knowledge about the system and researcher can adapt it to a specific topic or set of concerns. [8] By simple survey always not easy to get proper responses, even sometimes difficult to explain many things as written and so can get wrong survey result. Even if questionnaires survey gets long words then many people doesn’t want to participant or even does, they may answers fill up without reading questions properly. Needs ethnographic study of a nation to understand human behavior, belief and practices as a whole big group of a nation where individuals share their patterns behavior, beliefs, languages and practices. [8]

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In this paper mainly focused on private transportation sector, even though our preferable approached can be implemented in others sectors too. Still 94% fossil energy sources are from fuel supply and contributing dominating role in transport sector. Carbon emissions amount 55.3% in private sector as Figure 3.3. [9] So clearly it is noticeable the reason, currently why our paper focus on private transportation sector.

Already there are many organizations who are actively working for carbon offset business. But because of their ambiguity systems and lacking instant certification or no certification for any small amount of voluntary compensation, many voluntary participants are not involving who are polluters for huge amount of CO2 by their driving cars or fuel motorized engine. As Table 3.1 shows that voluntary carbon offsetting represents a small amount, but it is growing proportion in carbon market.

In another paper has mentioned that consumers are willingly to pay for social and environmental benefits in goods and services (e.g., Rode et al., 2008), it is also significantly countable as voluntary offsetting and co-benefits. In the voluntary carbon-offsetting market increasing private individuals with corporate social responsibilities [11].

Carbon-offset participants must want to know are their compensation utilize by authorized organization and easily can be acceptable if participants can get certificate in each time of their carbon-offset with the authorized organization. Significant number of participants can involve to carbon-offsets if there have certified offsets with proper awareness of certification regimes [11]. So, it is proved that instant CO2 emissions compensate certification system will hugely influence participants to voluntary compensate. Even from our research survey got the same response as Figure 3.4, where 84.85% user agree for instant CO2 compensation certificate where very less amount 15.15% with different argument.

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Triangulation is the well-known basic technique in ethnographic research [8] to contrast among different data sources and results from surveys focus groups and interviews could be compared to see if the similar results are being found [12, 13, 14]. If the conclusion form each of the methods are the same, then the reality is established.

So, from German private motorized transport sector 55.3% as Figure 3.3, smartphone user Germany Figure 3.1, interviews of different industries (cannot share because of technical

business privacy issues), survey as Figure 3.4 all of their combination results proved that having huge amount of CO2 emission and people are voluntary want to compensate for that by easy going smartphone App because of instant compensation certification. According to Wohlin et al. [7] software engineering is mainly a social process. So, this makes an empirical study a valid research methodology for this context, while illustrating how to actually implement the research findings will be an agile methodology.

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