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Choose one sdg and discuss chalenge faced by china

Sustainable development goals are guideline for the world that has been created by the united nation UNICEF for a better future for a country so as for the people around the world. Within SDG there is 17 goals and all of this is based on the current issue and they focused on how to counter it .This SDG is an multi-dimensional goals, they covered all the political, environment, social and economical in an country .As this introduced to the world in 2015 many country has try to achieve such goals however to achieve the goals have a backlash which is another problem will rise and with this they limit the goal time till 2030. Several method and way has been experiment by each country to achieve the 17 goals but yet another new issue come. Take a developed country like china where they experience air problem and water pollution and many method has been practiced and tried to reduce the cause but yet another issue arise that affected all the living things.

China is a country which the population were around 1.4 billion they are the top 1 country that has the most resident on land and china is also the top 2 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) right after the united nation with a GDP (Purchasing Power Parity – PPP) of $23.15 trillion (World Bank 2019). Where almost 40% of the GDP was gained from the industry and the manufacture sector and this is why china is known as the an industry land and what they did not notice that the industry and the manufacture sector was one of the main causes to air and water pollution problem that has been haunting china since decade ago(ROSS, September 2015)Even with the increase with china GDP every year making them to achieve other goals such as the poverty in china to be reduce but another issue raises affecting the environmental such as undrinkable water because of contamination and air pollution threatening the human life , animals and their vegetation . Air pollution can be produce by some natural source but mostly are caused by human. Nowadays the era of industry where everything and everywhere is using technology and most people had the mindset toward finding money without worrying what happen around they prefer to use cheap material as long as they earn more profit. Like in china most industry are specialize with the production of cement, steel, chemical fertilizers and they use cheap and affordable materials to earn more. Like when they produce cement they uses mainly coal as their combustion fuels since its cheap but it result in high volume of dust release and produce harmful gases to the environment and human despite knowing this they still producing it and based on the official Chinese cement production statistic that the cement production has increase around 2.3 percent per year this is because of the demand for these product was so high but it is good for the country economy as it will produce job opportunity to the people and as stated it increase the china GDP. The same goes for the steel production factory their demand is really high like In 2017 China has producing 16% of the world’s steel (February 2019, Global Steel Trade) but with this they will produce more gases and according to the international iron and steel institute (IISI) just from a combined steel plants itself can produce 1.6-2.4 tons of CO2 per ton of steel (SEAISI, September 2008). Chemical fertilizers are also high demand because chemical fertilizers work immediately so crops will grow faster which is ideal for the china huge population but chemical fertilizers provide such much nutrient that when rainfall some of these can flow to river and lake and cause eutrophication .eutrophication is when the water plant algae grow excessively causes the plant inside the water cannot gain sunlight therefore no oxygen for underwater animals which can cause to co2 release from the corpse(Liang Zhao, Feng & Fen Li, Qin & Yang, Xiaoe & Kun Liu, Jing. (2014)). this is why China are the top country that emit the most CO2 since 2016 (Rapier, July 2018, China emit more Carbon Dioxide than the U.S and EU combined)

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As the country in china are so large with around 9 million square kilometer so they will use need lot of electricity for the country to run so they uses fossil fuels for the electricity and they had around 1.4 billion people living there so they will need a lot of foods and resources and they will have many vehicle running .These will produce greenhouse gases and also smog which are air pollution. Greenhouse gases is made out of Carbon dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NO), methane (CH4) and fluorinated gases(Voigt, C. , Lamprecht, R. E., Marushchak, M. E., Lind, S. E., Novakovskiy, A. , Aurela, M. , Martikainen, P. J. and Biasi, C. (2017)”,). These gases trap heat from the sun and UV-light in the earth atmosphere and this cause skin cancer, a rise in earth temperature and the increase in the smog concentration. With the raise of temperature it cause more extreme climate such as draught and flood as people will respire more so they produce more sweat and water vapor and these forming raining cloud. These also can cause the increase of water level around the world not just in china cause the ice melting in either north or south pole thus some animals lose their habitats.as flood will be frequently happening it can ruin china economy as it will greatly affect their crops and it also can cause a major health problem such as malaria and more and also starvation in bigger cases. Extreme climate like hot will cause the pollen production to increase and these can affect the people in china air condition as it will be more dusty and unpleasant and can cause to difficulty in breathing. Smog also another type of air pollution that can cause a serious health affect and also reduce visibility. There are sulfurous smog and also photochemical smog(‘Smog: Photochemical smog & Sulfurous smog’(January 4, 2016)).Sulfurous smog are emitted from the fossils fuels burning by using coal and they produce sulfur and oxide and in china they are mainly produced by their power plane and been increasing with an annual growth of 7.3%.Sulfur dioxide(SO2) are a threat to human , plants and also animals(lu, Zhongyao & G. Streets, D & Zhang, Qian & Wang, Shihua & Carmichael, Gregory & Cheng, Yafang & Wei, Chao & Chin, Mian & Diehl, Tracy & Tan, Q. (2010).). SO2 can cause a health related issue such as inflammation and irritation to our breathing systems and even can increase the rate of heart attack. Where the photochemical smog are made when nitrogen oxide where can be obtain from the car exhaust , sun light and also volatile organic compound that produced from resin, paints and other .these smog can affect the human health and even destroyed some plants. Plants growth are affected and it can reduce the quantity and quality of the fruits and plant as it can reduce their oxygen intake.

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As we can see most of the problem In china was caused by co2, and greenhouse gases and to counter such problem various method has been try and one of it happen in 2013 the china government has try an method which is to close or to cancel all the coal based production .as many as 103 factory has been close (Gardiner, 2017). With this the amount of gases produced by coal combustion will decrease drastic which is their target but it has cause a deficit to the country economy as 50 million tons of steel production has been cut and with the company or industry are close it has cause a uproar to the worker that use to work at those company as it cause them to be un-employed and thus another problem arise. however with the cut of coal based industry it was really effective it has reduce the fine dust in the air by 25% in 2013 till 2014 but I does not last that long .In 2016 they steel production has pike back because the demand of steel around the world was high. Another method that been done was “,The Chinese government has asked the resident there to practice to use modern stove with fuel and gas based instead of furnace and coal based stove and this method are still one going till today as they still trying to adapt to not using those traditional method which has become their habit. To reduce the coal uses for the fossils fuels as its energy source they introduce renewable energy because its better in term of cost for the industry that use coals as it source of energy so as the environment friendly this has make china as one of the country as one of the leading country in renewable energy such as wind, solar, water and also biomass. By using renewable energy it not only give benefits such as health, clean air and more it also reduce the cost for purchasing fossils fuels and so on. With the renewable energy it will definitely provide jobs for the people here and thus the poverty problem in these country can be slowly solve but with these renewable energy for a large country like china they will need a lot of it so they will need more land to build these technology . They need to clear large sums of land these are cost for china and also may cause migration to animals or even human. By migration of animals and human cause crowd in another province and can cause harm to other in terms of health’s as they bring in new and new animals can be a threat to human. But despite all of this some people are still preferred to use fossil fuels as currently it is cheap compared to renewable energy but the price of renewable energy around the world has been decreasing and in 2020 it is been said by the international Renewable Energy Agency that in 2020 the price of common renewable energy would be on par or even much more cheaper than fossil fuels (England, 2018). This would cause another country that heavily rely in their produce fossil fuels to suffered China also has been also make counter measure against the nitrogen oxide that mainly emitted by the car and other mode of transport. They had introduce the electric car which are believe to reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide concentration as it would not be using gasoline which also can emitted a gas which can produce a photochemical smog . instead of using gasoline as it source it uses electricity and by doing so it would not burn the fuels so less or even no nitrogen oxide will be realease.to support or to promote such car the china government has taken the initiative to reduce it production cost by giving the companies that produce these car by subsidies and this also will create job and lowered the tax for us company car importation to china as stated in a BBC news that china has reportedly proposed cutting the tariffs on the US made cars by 15% not only to US it also goes to any other country that imported cars to china . With this china has made almost all mode of transportation there by electrical based transportation just like at the Shenzhen where all the bus are electrical and almost all the taxis are electrical cars.

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To conclude , we can say that all SDG are related to each other like how the climate change are related to other SDG like Life on land , life on water , health , better and more affordable energy and other. But even when china has taken many action to achieve this goal but it would not be achieved if there is no support for it. It is only the matter of times that the country air pollution can be much more worsen than it right now and would take more live in china. the Mind set of people need to change instead of being selfish to think what going to occurred around us and to change and to make a better world are new and better mindset are needed cause all of this not just affect china it also affect the world cause all of us share the same air to breath, same water and also the same earth.

(2094 words)

BIBIOLIGRAPHY

• China to ‘cut US car tariff to 15%'(December 2018)”,https://www.bbc.com/news/business-46531803

• ‘Dealing with Environmental Pollution in the Iron and Steel Industry: The China Case Study’(29September2008)”,http://www.seaisi.org/News/662/Dealing+with+Environmental+Pollution+in+the+Iron+and+Steel+Industry:+The+China+Case+Study

• BETH GARDINER”,(MAY 5, 2017)”,China’s Surprising Solutions to Clear Killer Air.https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/05/china-air-pollution-solutions-environment-tangshan/

• Rachel England(january2018)”,Renewable energy may be cheaper than fossil fuels by 2020.https://www.engadget.com/2018/01/23/renewable-energy-may-be-cheaper-than-fossil-fuels-by-2020/

• Robert Rapier(Jul 18) China Emits More Carbon Dioxide Than The US and EU Combined , https://www.forbes.com/sites/rrapier/2018/07/01/china-emits-more-carbon-dioxide-than-the-u-s-and-eu-combined/#1e11041b628c

• ‘Smog: Photochemical smog & Sulfurous smog’ (January 4, 2016)https://www.pmfias.com/smog-sulfurous-smog-photochemical-smog-london-smog-los-angeles-smog-effects-geography-upsc-ias/

• Liang Zhao, Feng & Fen Li, Qin & Yang, Xiaoe & Kun Liu, Jing. (2014). A Review on Water Eutropication: The Causing Factors and Purifying Technologies. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 522-524. 763-768. 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.522-524.763

• lu, Zhongyao & G. Streets, D & Zhang, Qian & Wang, Shihua & Carmichael, Gregory & Cheng, Yafang & Wei, Chao & Chin, Mian & Diehl, Tracy & Tan, Q. (2010). Sulfur dioxide emissions in China and sulfur trends in East Asia since 2000. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions. 10. 10.5194/acpd-10-8657-2010.

• Voigt, C. , Lamprecht, R. E., Marushchak, M. E., Lind, S. E., Novakovskiy, A. , Aurela, M. , Martikainen, P. J. and Biasi, C. (2017), Warming of subarctic tundra increases emissions of all three important greenhouse gases – carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Glob Change Biol, 23: 3121-3138. doi:10.1111/gcb.13563

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