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Cross cultural influences on english language

Cross cultural influences on English language

Table of Contents


Nativisation of English language 3

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Factors influencing the adoption of different languages 5

The impact of using different languages by writers or authors 6







Research approach 10

Research design 10

Data collection method 10

Sampling 10

Data analysis 11



[bookmark: _Toc1124650]OVERVIEW

The English language originally originated from the West Germanic language. It was primarily spoken in medieval era in England and is being widely used as a native and second language in almost all every continent in various fields like trade, commerce, politics, technical sector, education, multi-national organizations etc (Gough, 1996). The use of the English language has been done by various writers from different countries and origins to express their views in a more adequate manner. Such writers used the English language as per their needs and later modified few phrases of their own language or English language to suit the content of the writing. As a result, English had become one most adaptable language that is used by the writers, authors, etc. in different countries and environments.

[bookmark: _Toc1124651]Nativisation of English language

Languages are made from sounds that have been taken from human speech setting and universe soundtracks. When a speaker or writer borrows words from another language, he/she usually borrows the sound of the word present in the foreign language and uses it in their own language (Baumgardner, 1996). In respect to this, English is known to be one of the most nativisonal languages as it can be changed and adapted as per the requirement of the writer and environments. The English language is widely used by people belonging to different communities and countries. Hence, often due to intermixing of two languages significant changes occurs in usage and application of the languages. For example, ‘Bubele’ which has been taken from Yiddish vocabulary is a form of addressing slang used by children to their elderly relatives in place of sweetheart, darling or honey. The word bubele had been originally derived from the English word ‘bubbe’ often spelled as ‘bobe’ which means grandmother and used to denote the inverse address by a child to his/her grandmother (Kachru, 2006). In respect to this, in 2007 the word “Nice soup, eh bubela?. You want kreplach?” was affluently used by Alexander Theroux (an English novel writer) in his work Laura Warholic to establish direct connections with the readers. Likewise, the Indian writers whose native language was Hindi, when wrote fiction in the English language created their own language by using English and Hindi. As a result, many new words came into the form which re-defined the language and its cultural framework. For example, ‘gymkhana;’ which is a Hindi and Urdu origin word is widely used in English language and literary works.

In addition to this, many new words like ‘mardy’ have been introduced in the Oxford English Dictionary due to excessive usage by the children in Northern and Midlands of England. The word has been originally derived from the word ‘marred’ which means sulky or moody. The usage of the word was found by many authors and singers to establish greater connectivity with the audiences and make the conversation or dialects easily understandable. For example, Arctic Monkeys (a rock band) used the word ‘mardy’ in their song “Now then Mardy Bum I’ve seen your frown And it’s like looking down the barrel of a gun.” to bring more emotions and expressions to their song (Lupyan and Clark, 2015). The author Geraldine E. Jewsbury used the word ‘marred’ (past participle form of word mardy) in this famous book “The Sorrows of Gentility II” in the phrases “The grandfather gave it [a baby] impatiently back to the nurse with the observation that ‘It was very marred.” so that the author could present his views in a better manner. It also helped the readers to get a deeper meaning of the whole context and connect with the author saying in an influential manner. Hence, it can be said that the use of new words enhanced the understanding levels of the readers and connected them to the literary world more effectively.

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[bookmark: _Toc1124652]Factors influencing the adoption of different languages

As per the Oxford Dictionary, language is a means of communication which is either used in the form of speech or writing. It is termed to be a non-institutive framework that is used for interacting with others by the use of sounds and symbols (Beckett and MacPherson, 2005). In order to make a focus on the factors that influence the adoption of different languages is the linguistic factors. It refers to the position, characteristics, simplicity, recognition, similarities etc. of a language. For example, many Aboriginal writers prefer to use the English language in place of their Australian Aboriginal English language to present their views or establish communication as English has simpler characters than their native language. Like, the word ‘selfie’ which means self-portrait or image is an Australian origin word which is used in English and has found its place in the prestigious Oxford Dictionary (Berman and Verhoeven, 2002). Hence, it can be said that the easy usability of the words and language among the masses highly impacts the adoption of words into the daily usage of languages.

Furthermore, the socio-demographic factors also highly impact the use and intermixing of languages by the people. In respect to this, different countries had been choosing varied languages as their official languages based upon their number of speakers and geographical distribution. For example, India has chosen Hindi as an official language and English as a second language, East Africa, Tanzania has chosen Swahili as official language and English as a second language, etc (Tuzi, 2004). As a result, the intermixing of the words, vocabulary, phrases, grammar, semantics, pragmatics, etc. takes place which impacts the usage of both the languages. For example, ‘trans’ which is an American English word has been reformed and shortened to be widely used by the masses. The word has been originally derived from transsexual or transvestite generally referring to a transgender individual. The word had been used by many writers and authors to express and present their thoughts and establish connectivity with the readers. Like, Kevin Jennings used the word in his book “Always My Child” to denote the biological sex and attributes of the children (Villamil and Guerrero, 1998). In addition to this, other factors like lack of proper knowledge about the language, socio-psychological factors, international factors, pedagogical factors, etc. also highly impact the adoption of different languages.

[bookmark: _Toc1124653]The impact of using different languages by writers or authors

Language forms a medium through which the individuals interact and communicate with each other either in the verbal, written, sign or sound form. In respect to this, many writers and authors have been using different languages or a mix of languages to express their views and reach out to large audiences. For example, phrases like, ‘rain of flowers’ ‘always the same Rammaya”,’ ‘May she has a hundred male issues”,’ ‘a rich whispering like a crowd at evening worship, etc. are amicably mentioned in the book “the Cow of the Barricades” written by Raja Rao, to establish adequate associations with the readers (Eastman and Reese, 1981). As a result, by the use of Hindi and English language mix the readers were able to understand the context of the characters in a better way and get a deeper meaning of the whole book (Kerswill and Williams, 2002). Hence, it was a pleasurable experience for the readers to read the book and was in an able position to provide their feedback to the writer.

Furthermore, the language also forms an important medium to stimulate intellectual thoughts process, emotions and feelings (Bwalya and Healy, 2010). The use of different languages to express the views and present opinions makes it easier for the writers to reach to the larger audiences in an easy way. For example, the novel “Housewitch” written by Katie Schickel in 2015 adequately used the words Jackie-Os (an attributive used to describe a pair of sunglasses that are large and round) in the phrases like ‘Her eyes were unreadable behind her Jackie-Os’ so that the author would connect to the readers in an effective manner. By using new words from different languages the author had been able to present content emotions to the readers in a more impactful way (Lowenberg, 1986). Hence, it can be said that the use of different languages makes it easier for the writer to establish linkages with the readers and people in an easy manner.

[bookmark: _Toc1124654]AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

• To determine the nativization of English language in American, Afro-American, Aboriginal, Asian and Indian countries.

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• To determine the factors that influences the adoption of different languages by writers or authors in American, Afro-American, Aboriginal, Asian and Indian countries.

• To determine the impact of using different languages by writers or authors in American, Afro-American, Aboriginal, Asian and Indian countries.

[bookmark: _Toc1124655]RESEARCH QUESTIONS

• What is the status of nativization of English language in American, Afro-American, Aboriginal, Asian and Indian countries?

• What are factors that influence the adoption of different languages by writers or authors in American, Afro-American, Aboriginal, Asian and Indian countries?

• What is the impact of using different languages by writers or authors in American, Afro-American, Aboriginal, Asian and Indian countries?

[bookmark: _Toc1124656]PROBLEM STATEMENT

Language is a way by which a person will be able to convey their ideas, feelings, thought with the help of wordings in front of others. English is considered as a common language which is highly used all over the world by different writers and authors along with their native language to reach large masses (Gough, 1996). In Indian context, it was examined that many Indian writers like Raja Rao, Kiran Desai, Arvind Adiga etc. had been using English as their main language to reach to people in India as well as globally, but due to lack of adequate English language knowledge and learning in rural and semi-urban frontiers the spread of their literary works got restricted to limited people and communities. On the other hand, in order to determine the adoption of English language scenario of English language African, Aboriginal areas 16% Australia use Mandarin language and African people used the French language in their day to day life. In order to meet the learning and getting better opportunities, it is essential for the writers to use their own native language along with the English language to make a long-lasting impact on the common people (Baumgardner, 1996). Hence, it can be said that linguistic, socio-demographic, lack of proper knowledge about the language, socio-psychological factors, etc. highly influences the adoption of the English language by a person which indicates the main research problem here.

[bookmark: _Toc1124657]SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The current study mainly focuses on the adoption of the English language for learning and communication by the people who belong from a differing culture. By taking the example of American, Afro-American, Aboriginal, Asian and Indian countries, the study provides a brief understanding of the learning of English into the literary works by different writer and authors, which helps to develop the English language learning, and pattern among the people. The study is important because it provides various socio-culture factors that affect a person for grasping the English language by a person in his day to day life. As a result, the learning and understanding of the common people will increase and they will be able to communicate and interact in an effective manner. In addition to this, by the adoption of different languages, the learning level of the individual will increase to high levels and will be in a more affluent position to present his or her own views (Mukherjee and Gries, 2009).

[bookmark: _Toc1124658]SCOPE OF STUDY

To determine the scope of the study it can be said that the study is essential because to provide the complete knowledge of adoption of English language by the people who belong to different caste, society, and culture. The study is also helpful to determine the various social and cultural factors that affect the people for learning new things in the English language (Kachru, 2006). The study is also helpful in future by which various scholars and researcher will be able to get information such as strategies issues current status of English in different continents in the right way. It will provide relevant information about the various new changes brought in the English language to the other researcher in an effective way.

[bookmark: _Toc1124659]RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research method plays an important role which mainly includes various methods, assumptions, beliefs, for collecting, analyze and test the data in an effective manner (Sjoberg and Nett, 1997). In the current study, to examine the influence of cross culture in English language various methods will be used which are as follows.

[bookmark: _Toc1124660]Research approach

The research approach is a fundamental part of the research study which is based on certain beliefs and assumptions. The main purpose of the current study is to determine the various social and cultural factor that influence on the English language so that deductive research approach will be used by which the researcher will be able to collect the data by determining the various social and cultural theories and set assumptions in an effective manner.

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[bookmark: _Toc1124661]Research design

Research design defines a complete framework of a study. To determine the influence of the cross-culture of English language descriptive research design will be used for analyzing the variable such as social culture factors and its impact on learning of the English language of a person. It will also help to test and frame the hypotheses which are expressed in a numerical manner (Sullivan-Bolyai, Bova and Singh, 2014).

[bookmark: _Toc1124662]Data collection method

In order to collect the data primary data collection method will be used with the help of 5-Point Likert scale, close-ended questionnaire, conducting the survey, asking questions in the form of face to face interview of American, Afro-American, Aboriginal, Asian and Indian countries people who is facing the English language while learning and communicating with others (Valentine, 1997)?

[bookmark: _Toc1124663]Sampling

To examine the impact of various social and cultural factors of English language simple random sampling method will be used in which a small unit of a number of the units will be taken in a given population. In order to make on sample unit, it includes American, Afro-American, Aboriginal, Asian and Indian countries people in which the sample size will be 30 Afro -American people, 30 for and 30 Asian and Indian people when covered under the age of 25- 50- year old.

[bookmark: _Toc1124664]Data analysis

As per the collected data, it is essential for the study to make a final judgment based on data analysis of data will be plotted in a tabular manner (Welman, Kruger and Mitchell, 2005). In the current study, the thematic analysis will be used in which graphs, pie charts, diagrams will be used for presenting the result. In addition to this some statistical tools like SPSS, chi-square, one way ANOVA will be used in the study.

[bookmark: _Toc525065684][bookmark: _Toc1124665]RESEARCH PLAN

Stages of Research

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

Week 7

Assortment of topic

Identifying the research objectives

Analysing the extent of the study

Literature review

Research methodology arrangement

Selecting the truthful the research methodology

Indentifying the research constraint

Making final winding up

Concluding Research mission

[bookmark: _Toc1124666]REFERENCES

Baumgardner, R.J. ed., 1996. South Asian English: structure, use, and users. University of Illinois Press.

Beckett, G.H. and MacPherson, S., 2005. Researching the impact of English on minority and indigenous languages in non‐western contexts. Tesol Quarterly, 39(2), pp.299-307.

Berman, R. and Verhoeven, L., 2002. Cross-linguistic perspectives on the development of text-production abilities: Speech and writing. Written Language & Literacy, 5(1), pp.1-43.

Bwalya, K.J. and Healy, M., 2010. Harnessing e-government adoption in the SADC region: a conceptual underpinning. Electronic Journal of E-government, 8(1), p.23.

Eastman, C.M. and Reese, T.C., 1981. Associated language: How language and ethnic identity are related. General Linguistics, 21(2), p.109.

Gough, D., 1996. Black English in South Africa. Focus on South Africa, pp.53-77.

Kachru, B.B., 2006. The English language in the outer circle. World Englishes, 3, pp.241-255.

Kerswill, P. and Williams, A., 2002. Salience” as an explanatory factor in language change: evidence from dialect levelling in urban England. Language change: The interplay of internal, external and extra-linguistic factors, pp.81-110.

Lowenberg, P.H., 1986. Non-native varieties of English: Nativization, norms, and implications. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 8(1), pp.1-18.

Lupyan, G. and Clark, A., 2015. Words and the world: Predictive coding and the language-perception-cognition interface. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(4), pp.279-284.

Mukherjee, J. and Gries, S.T., 2009. Collostructional nativisation in New Englishes: Verb-construction associations in the International Corpus of English. English World-Wide, 30(1), pp.27-51.

Sjoberg, G. and Nett, R., 1997. A methodology for social research: With a new introductory essay. Waveland PressInc.

Sullivan-Bolyai, S., Bova, C. and Singh, M.D., 2014. Data-collection methods. Nursing Research in Canada-E-Book: Methods, Critical Appraisal, and Utilization, 287.

Tuzi, F., 2004. The impact of e-feedback on the revisions of L2 writers in an academic writing course. Computers and Composition, 21(2), pp.217-235.

Valentine, G., 1997. Tell me about…: using interviews as a research methodology. Methods in human geography: A guide for students doing a research project, pp.110-126.

Villamil, O.S. and Guerrero, M.C.D., 1998. Assessing the impact of peer revision on L2 writing. Applied linguistics, 19(4), pp.491-514.

Welman, C., Kruger, F. and Mitchell, B., 2005. Research methodology (pp. 35-40). Cape Town: Oxford University Press.


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