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Crude variegated english ivy extract as insecticide against house crickets

The data above shows the time of death of the crickets in each set-up. The fifth cricket in Experimental Group A took the longest to die, with a time of 30 minutes. The cricket that died the fastest is in Experimental Group D, with a time of 1 minute and 3 seconds.

For Experimental Group A with a treatment of 10ml of crude variegated English ivy extract, the cricket that took the longest to die was in set-up 5, with a time of 30 minutes. The cricket that died the fastest was in set-up 1, with a time of 12 minutes and 5 seconds. The cricket in set-up 2 died with a time of 17 minutes and 10 seconds. The cricket in set-up 3 died with a time of 18 minutes. And lastly, the cricket in set-up 4 died with a time of 21 minutes and 57 seconds.

For Experimental Group B with a treatment of 8ml of crude variegated English ivy extract and 2ml of 90% ethanol, the cricket that took the longest to die was in set-up 5, with a time of 9 minutes and 6 seconds. The cricket that died the fastest was in set-up 1, with a time of 2 minutes and 55 seconds. The cricket in set-up 2 died with a time of 4 minutes and 30 seconds. The cricket in set-up 3 follows shortly, with a time of 4 minutes and 43 seconds. And lastly, the cricket in set-up 4 died with a time of 4 minutes and 28 seconds.

For Experimental Group C with a treatment of 6ml of crude variegated English ivy extract and 4ml of 90% ethanol, the cricket that took the longest to die was in set-up 5, with a time of 3 minutes and 39 seconds. The cricket that died the fastest was in set-up 1, with a time of 1 minute

and 7 seconds. The cricket in set-up 2 died with a time of 2 minutes and 30 seconds. The cricket in set-up 3 died with a time of 3. And lastly, the cricket in set-up 4 died with a time of 3 minutes and 39 seconds.

For Experimental Group D with a treatment of 4ml of crude variegated English ivy extract and 6ml of 90% ethanol, the cricket that took the longest to die was in set-up 5, with a time of 1 minute and 48 seconds. The cricket that died the fastest was in set-up 1, with a time of 1 minute and 3 seconds. The cricket in set-up 2 died with a time of 1 minute and 27 seconds. And lastly, the crickets in set-ups 3 and 4 both died with a time of 1 minute and 33 seconds.

For Experimental Group E with a treatment of 2ml of crude variegated English ivy extract and 8ml of 90% ethanol, the cricket that took the longest to die was in set-up 5, with a time of 1 minute and 40 seconds. The cricket that died the fastest was in set-up 1, with a time of 1 minute and 20 seconds. The cricket in set-up 2 died with a time of 1 minute and 22 seconds. The cricket in set-up 3 died with a time of 1 minute and 27 seconds And lastly, the cricket in set-up 4 died with a time of 1 minute and 34 seconds.

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The data above show the average time of death of the crickets in each group. The Experimental Group A has the longest average time, with a time of 19 minutes and 51 seconds. The Experimental Group E has the shortest average time, with a time of 1 minute and 28 seconds. The Experimental Group B has an average time of 5 minutes and 21 seconds. The experimental group C has an average time of 2 minutes and 41 seconds. And lastly, the Experimental Group D has an average time of 1 minute and 29 seconds.

There were 5 Experimental Groups, each with a different treatment, as stated beforehand. All the crickets, except for one, died after 5 sprays. The last cricket died after being sprayed 15 times. This cricket, before death, was observed to appear to become unconscious multiple times, after which it would regain consciousness. After 24 hours, all the crickets were confirmed to be dead. It was observed that the crickets would jump around when they were nearing their death, after which they would fall over with their legs twitching constantly.

DISCUSSION

The fifth product effectively killed all the crickets, but among the five products formulated by the researchers, the fifth product gave off the strongest smell which killed the insects instantly. Also, the fourth product with the formula of 4ml of crude variegated English ivy extract and 6ml of 90% ethanol knocked down the crickets a second compared to the fifth product. The third and second product killed the crickets almost at the same time based on the experimentations while the first product with 10ml of crude variegated English ivy extract was able to kill the insects, the time for the first product to take effect was the slowest among the other products formulated; however, the fifth product was the most effective as it killed the crickets the fastest.

According to experimental and chemical investigations, common ivy (Hedera helix subsp. helix) contains 3 compounds that are powerful irritants and moderate sensitizers. Two of these compunds, falcarinol and didehydrofalcarinol, are present in the plant throughout the year. These two compounds also occur in Hedera helix subsp. canariensis. 4 patients had been patch tested, and it was observed that the main allergen falcarinol caused strong reactions in all of them, even in low concentrations (0.03%). (Hausen et. al., PubMed. “Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from falcarinol and didehydrofalcarinol in common ivy (Hedera helix L.).” Last modified July 17, 1987. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3652685)

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Falcarinol is a natural pesticide and fatty alcohol that can be found in carrots, red ginseng, Panax ginseng, and ivy. It protects roots from various fungal diseases, such as liquorice rot. It is a polyene with two carbon carbon triple bonds and two double bonds. It can cause allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. (University of Newcastle Upon Tyne. Carrot Museum. “Falcarinol in Carrots.” Last modified February 18, 2005. http://www.carrotmuseum.co.uk/falcarinol.html)

Common ivy (Hedera helix subsp. helix) is an ornamental plant in Europe. Since 1899, reports on contact dermatitis have regularly appeared. However, it has recently been suggested that allergic contact dermatitis from the plant may be under-diagnosed, partially due to the lack of commercial patch test allergens. One hundred and twenty-seven Danish patients were tested with falcarinol and 10 (7.9%) tested positive. Seven were occupationally sensitized. Between 1994 and 2009, 28 new cases were reported, 2 of which were occupational. However, only 11 were tested with pure allergens. Falcarinol is also present in the closely related Apiaceae family. In view of the prevalence of plants containing falcarinol and the extensiveness of positive reactions in aimed patch testing, falcarinol should be the next plant allergen to be commercially available worldwide. (Paulsen et al., PubMed. “Dermatitis from common ivy (Hedera helix L. subsp. helix) in Europe: past, present, and future.” Last modified March 4, 2010. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20236156)

The data results varied depending on the number of sprays in the container where the crickets were placed. Also, the size of the container played a huge role in killing the crickets since when placed in a limited area, all insects will be completely exposed to the product. The inevitable event that greatly affected the experiment’s results was the cricket’s mechanism to the product spattered on them. The amount of crude variegated English ivy plant extract was vital in killing effectively all the crickets as showed in the experimentations as it helped the ethanol to increase the chance of knockdown of all the insects. If the researchers were given the chance to repeat the experimentations, the researchers would have had more set-ups, resulting in more accurate and concise results, particularly the number of containers and crickets in it. The researchers would also have a pure extract of variegated English ivy plant so that they would have compared the difference between the effectiveness of crude extract and the pure extract of the plant. The insecticide must undergo laboratory testing to know the exact properties that made the insecticide effective, specifically on crickets.

CONCLUSION

With all the results taken into consideration, all the set-ups were effective in killing the crickets within 24 hours. Experimental Group A, which was treated with 100% crude English Ivy Plant extract was the least effective, but was still able to kill the crickets within 30 minutes. Experimental Group E, which was treated with 20% crude English Ivy Plant extract and 80% ethanol was the most effective, killing the crickets in under 2 minutes. However, Experimental Groups C and D, with concentrations of 60% crude English Ivy Plant extract and 40% ethanol and 40% crude English Ivy Plant extract and 60% ethanol respectively, killed the crickets in a very short amount of time as well, not exceeding five minutes.

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RECOMMENDATIONS

Despite the Experimental Group E killing the crickets the fastest, the researchers would recommend the using either Experimental Group C or D instead, as they were the third and seconds fastest to kill, respectively, but they contain less ethanol, despite the time difference being negligible when compared to Experimental Group E. The researchers would recommend Experimental Group E in killing insects that may be more resilient to insecticides. The researchers would also recommend the further study into Variegated English Ivy plant, as a pure extract is hypothesized to be much more effective than a crude one. Furthermore, the researchers would also like to recommend the further study of falcarinol in plants other than Variegated English Ivy. The researchers would also like to recommend the testing of the organic insecticide in the study on other insects or pests like the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) which are known to devastate rice crops in the Philippines.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Firstly, we would like to thank our ever-supportive parents. Not only did they provide as with financial assistance, but they also provided as with their care and everlasting love. We would like to thank the mothers and fathers of our members for supporting us in this endeavor.

We would also like to thank Ms. God-Elene B. Ditan, our class adviser. Mrs. Ma. Cristina Villareal, the head of the science department of our school, and Mrs. Ma. Theresa G. Baita for being not only our research teacher, but also our adult sponsor and advisor for whenever we needed help with our study.

We would also like to thank the staff of the Institute of Chemistry of the University of the Philippines Diliman for their assistance in the extraction. Without their help, our study would not have come into fruition.

Last but certainly not the least, we would like to thank our Almighty God, for all the blessings he has showered upon us, and for guiding us not only in our study, but also our lives. Without him, none of this would have been possible.

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