Arduino is an open source hardware and software company, project and user’s community that designs and manufactures single board microcontrollers and microcontroller kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control both physical and digital. Its products are licensed under the Lesser General Public License permitting the manufacture of arduino boards and software distribution by anyone. The boards are equipped with sets of digital and analog (I/O)pins that may be interfaced to various expansion board and other circuit.
Fig:1.1 Arduino circuit board
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the
functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit , or at most a
few integrated circuit.
The integration of a whole CPU onto a single or a few integrated
circuits greatly reduced the cost of processing power. Integrated circuit processors
are produced in large numbers by highly automated processes, resulting in a
low unit price. Single-chip processors increase reliability because there are many
fewer electrical connections that could fail. As microprocessor designs improve”,
the cost of manufacturing a chip with smaller components built on a
semiconductor chip the same size generally stays the same according to Rock’s
1.3 Servo motor
A servo motor is an electrical device which can push or rotate
an object with great precision. If you want to rotate and object at some specific
angles or distance, then you use servo motor. It is just made up of simple motor
which run through servo mechanism. If motor is used is DC powered then it is
called DC servo motor, and if it is AC powered motor then it is called AC servo
motor. We can get a very high torque servo motor in a small and light weight
packages. Doe to these features they are being used in many applications like toy
car, RC helicopters and planes, Robotics, Machine etc. Servo implies an error sensing feedback control which is utilized to correct the performance of a system. It also requires a generally sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed particularly for use with servomotors. Servo motors are DC motors that allows for precise control of angular position. They are actually DC motors whose speed is slowly lowered by the gears. The servo motors usually have a revolution cutoff from 90° to 180°. A few servo motors also have revolution cutoff of 360° or more. But servo motors do not rotate constantly. Their rotation is limited in between the fixed angles.
The servo motor is actually an assembly of four things: a normal DC motor, a gear reduction unit, a position-sensing device and a control circuit. The DC motor is connected with a gear mechanism which provides feedback to a position sensor which is mostly a potentiometer. From the gear box, the output of the motor is delivered via servo spline to the servo arm. For standard servo motors, the gear is normally made up of plastic whereas for high power servos, the gear is made up of metal.
Fig:1.3 Servo motor
1.4 Stepper motor
Stepper motors effectively have multiple “toothed” electromagnets
arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The electromagnets are
energized by an external driver circuit or a micro controller. To make the motor
shaft turn, first, one electromagnet is given power, which magnetically attracts the
gear’s teeth. When the gear’s teeth are aligned to the first electromagnet, they are
slightly offset from the next electromagnet. This means that when the next
electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to
align with the next one. From there the process is repeated. Each of those rotations
is called a “step”, with an integer numberof steps making a full rotation. In that
way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.
The circular arrangement of electromagnets is divided into groups”,
each group called a phase, and there is an equal number of electromagnets per
group. The number of groups is chosen by the designer of the stepper motor. The
electro magnets of each group are interleaved with the electromagnets of other
groups to form a uniform pattern of arrangement.
Fig:1.4 Stepper motor
1.5 Cartesian coordinate system
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that
specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a set of numerical coordinates”,
which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular oriented
lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference line is called
a coordinate axis or just axis (plural axes) of the system, and the point where they
meet is its origin, at ordered pair (0, 0). The coordinates can also be defined as
the positions of the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axes”,
expressed as signed distances from the origin.
One can use the same principle to specify the position of any point
in three-dimensional space by three Cartesian coordinates, its signed distances
to three mutually perpendicular planes (or, equivalently, by its perpendicular
projection onto three mutually perpendicular lines). In general, n Cartesian
coordinates (an element of real n-space) specify the point in an n-
dimensional Euclidean space for any dimension n. These coordinates are
equal, up to sign, to distances from the point to n mutually
perpendicular hyper planes.
Fig:1.5 X and Y coordinate points
1.6 2D plotter
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design”,
construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for
their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. The design of a given
robotic system will often incorporate principles of mechanical engineering”,
electronic engineering and computer science (particularly artificial
intelligence).The term ‘robotics’ was coined by Isaac Asimov in his science
fiction short story called ‘Liar’. Robot is an electro mechanical machine
which is guided by a electronic circuitry or computer program to perform
various tasks. A robotic arm is a robotic manipulator, usually programmable, with
functions similar to that of human arm. Robotic 2D Plotter is a plotter that offers
the fastest way to efficiently produce very large drawings. Pen plotters will be
able to print by moving a pen or other writing device across the surface of a piece
of paper. This means that plotters are vector graphics devices, rather than raster
graphics. Pen plotters can draw complex line art, including text, but do so slowly
because of the mechanical movement of the writing device such as pen. SCARA
which refers to Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm or Selective
Compliance Articulated Robot Arm is used to make a writing robot wherein the
robot plots the input given from the computer on the drawing board. The SCARA
robot is an X-Y Plotter. The plotters available in the market are Cartesian
robots, cylindrical robots and Spherical robot/Polar robots. Cartesian robot are
used for pick and place work, application of sealant, assembly operations”,
handling machine tools and arc welding. It is a robot whose arm has will have
three prismatic joints, whose axes are coincident with a Cartesian coordinator.
Cylindrical robots are used for assembly operations, handling at machine tools”,
spot welding, and handling at die casting machines. It is a robot whose axes form
a cylindrical coordinate system. Spherical robot/Polar robot are used for
handling at machine tools, spot welding, die casting, fettling machines, gas
welding and arc welding. It is a robot whose axes form a polar coordinate system.
Jointed-Arm Robot is the arm that connects with a twisting joint .The links within
joints are connected with rotary joints. They are also called Articulate Robots.
2D Plotter is a mini Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine.
2D Plotter is a drawing robot based on make block platform, precision is 0.005mm”,
working area is 310mm × 390mm.In this project, specifications of a simple
prototype 2D Plotter is achieved by drawing the figure, by writing the desired text
with a theoretical resolution 0.005mm and maximum feed rate 50mm/minutes. If
we want to use the 2D Plotter, we first open the Croal Draw Software. Next, we
write desired text or plot the figure which we want to design and then save as
dxf.file. Second, we open the Lazy CAM Software and .dxf file from Coral Draw
is inserted to Lazy CAM Software to produce G Code. XY- Plotter is actually run
with Mach3 Software using the G Code. We already use the .dxf and .dwf file type
that changing G Code. Finally, the desired output is achieved and we can see it
on the drawing paper.
Computer software, or simply software, is a collection of data or
computer instructions that tell the computer how to work. This is in contrast
to physical hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the
work. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is
all information processed by computer systems, programs and data. Computer
software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data”,
such as online documentation or digital media. Computer hardware and software
require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own.
1.9 Industrial design
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to
be manufactured through techniques of mass production. Its key characteristic is
that design is separated from manufacture: the creative act of determining and
defining a product’s form and features takes place in advance of the physical act of
making a product, which consists purely of repeated, often automated”,
replication. This distinguishes industrial design from craft-based design, where
the form of the product is determined by the product’s creator at the time of its
All manufactured products are the result of a design process, but the
nature of this process can take many forms: it can be conducted by an individual or
a large team; it can emphasize intuitive creativity or calculated, and often
emphasizes both at the same time; and it can be influenced by factors as varied
as materials, production processes, business strategy, and prevailing social”,
commercial, or aesthetic attitudes.
Inkscape is a free and open-source vector graphics editor. This
software can be used to create or edit vector graphics such as illustrations”,
diagrams, line arts, charts, logos and complex paintings. Inkscape’s primary vector
graphics format is Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG); however, many other formats
can be imported and exported. Inkscape can render primitive vector shapes and
text. These objects may be filled with solid colures, patterns, radial or
linear colour and their borders may be stroked, both with adjustable transparency.
Embedding and optional tracing of raster graphics is also supported, enabling the
editor to create vector graphics from photos and other raster sources. Created
shapes can be further manipulated with transformations, such as moving, rotating”,
scaling and skewing.
Fig1.6 Inkscape display
A simple Arduino-based EIS system for in situ corrosion monitoring of metallic works of art , M.Parvis, Volume 114, January 2018.
Metallic artifacts of archaeological and historical interest, expose tooutdoor environmental conditions, can be affected to a great extent by degradation, due to the presence of aggressive compounds in the surrounding environment. The development of suitable preventive conservation strategies for these important signs of our culture, requires their corrosion behaviour to be investigated in order to understand the electrochemical phenomena that occur on the metallic surface.
This investigation can easily be performed in a laboratory by means of different chemico-physical techniques, which provide information on the composition, microstructure and morphology of the corrosion products, as well as by means of electrochemical measurements, which allow the corrosion resistance of the metal to be estimated. Unfortunately, these measurements are often invasive and require micro sampling.
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), thanks to the its high degree of sensitivity, and to the small perturbation applied to the corroding system, can be considered a useful non-destructive testing method to obtain valuable information on the conservation state of metallic works of art.
This paper describes an innovative, portable, low-cost and user-friendly solution for EIS in situ measurements, based on the widely diffused Arduino board, and on specifically designed measuring probes. The proposed solution cannot provide the detailed knowledge of the corrosion mechanisms that occur on metallic surface, but it can be an extremely useful tool for conservators and art historians for the assessment and long-time monitoring of the stability of the artifacts.
Design and Implementation of XY-Plotter Mya Thandar Kyu, War
War Htun, Volume 7, Issue 7, July 2018.
The mechanical subsystem of a CNC provides the means needed
to cut and machine various materials for a given job. The choice of materials has a
direct impact on performance, precision, repeatability, longevity, and mechanical
noise transfer into the parts. The mechanical subsystem is comprised of the guide
system, the drive system, and the frame housing structure. Each of these systems
has a direct impact on the aforementioned qualities of a CNC. The remainder of
this section will focus on the types of these systems and look at the advantages
and disadvantages of each.
The development of the X-Y plotter is to scheming two
dimensional data on a rectangular coordinate system. XY Plotter prints by
smoving a pen or other instrument across the surface of a piece of paper. This
project is to operate drawing the figure or text by milling machine. By using this
XY Plotter, can draw the complex line art and including text. The result is very
accurate. This project mainly uses three software: CorelDraw, Lazy CAM and
Mach 3 milling.
Based on G-code command the desire outputs can be loaded
rapidly. The main components are stepper motor, TB6600 driver, Parallel Port
Mach3 interface card and other mechanisms. This research project controls the
mechanical movements with the electronics pulse. The model XY- Plotter is
achieved by sketching the figure or by lettering the desired text with a resolution of
Analysis of calibration techniques for robot sketch drawing
Avinash KumarSingh, Volume 79, May 2016
The strength of the NAO humanoid robot is discussed with several
challenges in the arena of human portrait and sketch drawing. These challenges
include extracting feature points from the input image, defining these points with
respect to end effector, finding the inverse kinematics solution and designing a
visual feedback system.
This paper mainly addresses the fundamental issue of
defining a relationship between the points of the image plane and NAO end
effector position. This relationship enables NAO to perceive points of image plane
with respect to its body coordinate system.
Three different techniques based on the principles of fundamental
matrix, pseudo inverse and Artificial Neural Network based regression analysis
are applied to handle the calibration difficulties on NAO robot. A comprehensive
study on sample points collected from NAO end effector position and
corresponding image points has been made to understand the effectiveness of each
technique. The degree of performance ability of each technique has been measured
using time complexity, and mean square error metrics.
An open-source modular Python framework for controlling Arduino based experimental instruments, Israel JoelKoenka, October 2014.
Instrumenting is an open-source modular graphical user
interface framework for controlling Arduino based experimental instruments. It
expands the control capability of Arduino by allowing instruments builders to
easily create a custom user interface program running on an attached personal
computer. It enables the definition of operation sequences and their automated
running without user intervention.
Acquired experimental data and a usage log are
automatically saved on the computer for further processing. The use of
the programming language Python also allows easy extension. Complex devices”,
which are difficult to control using an Arduino, may be integrated as well by
Incorporating third party application programming interfaces into the
Generative design in the development of a robotic manipulator, Emmanuel Francalanza, December 2017.
The emergence of cyber physical production systems has brought with it an increased utilization of robotics in collaborative manufacturing environments. An approach to meet this demand is to democratize robotics by making cheaper more customizable robots that can be implemented by small and medium enterprises. To tackle this problem this research looks at using rapid prototyping techniques for the development of customizable robotic manipulators which can be implemented in cyber physical production systems.
This research therefore contributes an approach for designing connected and rapid prototyped robotic manipulators. This approach considers both the software and hardware development required for implementing a robotic manipulator. Furthermore generative design, an evolutionary and artificial intelligence based approach, is used to design the link modules between the robot joints. This component has been identified as the ideal to be designed with this approach as it benefits most of the generative design approach coupled with rapid prototyping. This paper also explores a robotic manipulator control structure based on Ethernet control technology for implementation within cyber physical production systems.