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Design and development of automatic solar tracking system

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

Chandkheda, Ahmedabad

Affiliated

DR.S &S.S GHANDHY GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING COLLEGE, SURAT

An UDP

Project Report

On

“Design And Development of Automatic Solar Tracking System”

Team ID – 54403

B. E. Semester – VIII

(Mechanical Engineering.)

Submitted by:-

VAGADIYA KISHANKUMAR V. 150230119059

KUMBHANI SUJANKUMAR D. 150234119003

MULTANI AEMAN A. 150233119006

POPATIYA VIRAL D. 150230119064

GAMIT DIPAKBHAI G. 150233119003

Guided by:-

Prof. P.M.GAUTAM

Academic year

(2018-19)

INDEX

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 05

1.1

Problem Summary

1.2

Aim and Objective of the Project

1.3

Problem Specifications

1.4

Brief literature review

1.5

Plan of project

1.6

Main Componenets

CHAPTER 2: DESIGN 14

2.1

Design Methodology

2.2

Design Analysis

2.3

Design Implementation

CHAPTER 3: IMPLEMENTATION 21

3.1

Aurdino programme

3.2

Snapshot/Picture of Modelling Image

CHAPTER 4: SUMMARY 24

4.1

Advantages

4.2

Scope of Project

4.3

Features Of Project

REFERENCES 27

APPENDIX

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are truly grateful to been able to take on this project from which we can develop our abilities to its highest level by researching on the Automatic solar tracking system. We take pleasure in presenting the report of our project work entitled developing of“DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATIC SOLAR TRACKING SYSTEM”

First and foremost we would like to express our deepest sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to our Project guide Prof. P.M.Gautam sir who also happen to be Asistant proffesor of mechanical engineering for his constant encouragement, co-operation and support.

We are also thankful for those people who directly or indirectly helped us in project whose names not mentioned.

Project Team:

VAGADIYA KISHANKUMAR V. 150230119059

KUMBHANI SUJANKUMAR D. 150234119003

MULTANI AEMAN A. 150233119006

POPATIYA VIRAL D. 150230119064

GAMIT DIPAKBHAI G. 150233119003

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project reports, submitted along with the project entitled “Design And Development of Automatic Solar Tracking System” has been carried out by Vagadiya Kishankumar”,Kumbhani Sujan”,Multani Aeman”,Popatiya Viral”,Gamit Dipakbhai Under my guidance in partial fulfillment for the degree of: Bachelor of Engineering in (Mechanical) 8th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year 2018-19. These students have successfully completed activity under my guidance.

Guided By: – H.O.D.:- Prof. P.M.Gautam Prof. V.D.DHIMAN

External Guide :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

Problem Summary

Energy is a initial requirement for the existence and progress of human life. Initially, the commercial sources such as fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas), hydroelectric power and nuclear power provide the energy needs of any nation. With the increase in value or standards of living, the demand for energy is increasing at an alarming rate year after year. On the other hand, the fossil fuels are exhausting and the era of fossil fuel is modrately coming to an end. The hurrying demand and the depletion of resources have caused a steep grows in the cost of fossil fuel. Besides, the burning or combiustion of fossil fuels has caused air pollution resulting in global warming and ozone layer depletion.

At the initial stage of our team formation, we searched various areas of mechanical engineering and an optimum idea that can benefit the society.

After few researches & discussion on various topics, we thought of concentrating in today’s scenario .we started analysing and studied few research paper.

We have divided the loss encountered in the problem into three categories;-

Economic loss

Environmental degradation

Human loss

Economic loss: Due to utilization of coal and other fuel for generation of hot water economic loss is encountered.

Environmental loss: After the burning of fossil fuel for generation of heat there occurs pollution which degrades environment.

Human loss: For generation of hot water humans use to work with fossil fuels such as coal which creates health issues.

1.2 Aim and Objective of the project

Our objective is to rotate solar collector according to suns movement so angle of incident will be zero and maximum efficiency will be achieved”,

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Some other objective are:

1.Utilization of solar energy for domestic purpose.

2.To save the cost of fuel because of use of nonconventional sources.

3.To make angle of incedent zero so maximum energy generated.

4. To automize the movement of solar contrater w.r.t the Sun.

5.Make it affordable for common use also.

In context of solar energy availability, India is one of the richest country among the world.and using it we can secure our energy secuority.

1.3 Problem Specification

(1)convectional sources of energy are going to finished soon and also many problems like pollution arise due to it

(2)1353 W/m of energy falling from sun on earth surface but we are unable to get even a 2% of it.

(3)Solar equipments have vary low efficiency and less effective.

(4)solar equipments are vary costly as it is mot affordable to common people.

(5)position of sun according to earth changes continuesly so angle of incidence is not always zero so for make it automatic tracking is required.

Hence “,for getting maximum efficience and make solar equipment more user friendly automatic solar tracking system is required.

1.4 Literature

Design, Construction, and Experimental Testing of a Parabolic Trough Collector for Process Heat Applications

Publisher : International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology

Vol. 5, Issue 9, September 2016

One of the most important applications of the solar energy is the Parabolic Trough Collector. During last decades until now; there are several promising developments in the field of the Parabolic Trough Collectors and their applications. In this research paper design, construction and testing of two Parabolic Trough Collectors fabricated from the available local materials has been experimentally investigated under local climate conditions of Sabratha City in Libya (latitude 32.8° N, longitude 12.5°E).

Design, manufacture and testing of fiberglass reinforced parabola trough for parabolic trough solar collectors

A. Valan Arasu *, T. Sornakumar

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai 625 015, Tamilnadu, India

Received 8 February 2006; received in revised form 26 December 2006; accepted 2 January 2007

Available online 14 February 2007

The design and manufacture of a smooth 90_ rim angle fiberglass reinforced parabolic trough for parabolic trough solar collector hot water generation system by hand lay up method is described in this paper. The total thickness of the parabolic trough is 7 mm. The concave surface where the reflector is fixed is manufactured to a high degree of surface finish. The fiberglass reinforced parabolic trough was tested under a load corresponding to the force applied by a blowing wind with 34 m/s. Distortion of the parabola due to wind loading was found to be within acceptable limits.

Design and fabrication parabolic trough collector Solar Energy Engineering Processes And Systems:

By: Soteris A. Kalogirou

For the basic design and deciding of dimensioning we went through Solar Energy Engineering Processes And Systems by Kalogirou. Hence we refereed traditional method of designing Parabolic trough Collector and decided the final dimensions.

Design, fabrication and performance evaluation of a low cost

By: international journal of mechanical engineering

and technology (ijmet)

In the present work, an attempt has been made to design, fabricate & evaluate the performance of Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) to produce hot water. The Supporting stand of concentrator is made of mild steel & reflector is made of acrylic sheet with a rim angle of 45o and aperture area of 2.14 m2 and with a concentration ratio of 12.59. The receiver pipe is made of pure copper. The thermal performance of the PTC was determined according to ASHRAE 93-1986 (RA 91). The maximum instantaneous thermal efficiency of 52.35% is obtained.

1.5 Plan of Work

We researched some known and established papers for the different variations that can be applied on Automatic solar tracking system and than try to find most effective mechanism for rotating concentrator and we select worm and worm whell mechanism for it which provide jack action so less torque will be needed.

Than we construt full model and calculate required torque roughly and select NEMA 23 stepper motor”,L298 motor driver and UNO3 RDNO circuit.

Then we think about motors and select stepper motor for rotating concentratot.we have two ways to track suns movement by stepper motor .

1)programme acc. To like that concentrator should rotate 15degree in one hour.so concentrator automatically set acc. To sun

2)use LDR sensors to track solar radiation and according its signal motor driver and RDNO rotate stepper motor.The results would suggest what is the improvement on the vary of what quantityand our analysis would be done.

So we try to do both programming and finally deside to use LDR sensor to track suns movement

1.6 Main Components

1.6.1 Worm and worm wheel

fig.1

Worm and worm wheel mechanism is self locking mechanism which is used to reduce motion efficiently up to 300:1.It also provide jack action so we can gate vary high output torque applying vary small torque.

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We select worm gear mechanism having gear ration 32:1 of gun metal material can be used for heavy duty application.

1.6.2 Stepper motor :

Fig.2

A stepper mottor is a brushless, synchronous electric motor that converts digital pulses into mechanical shaft rotation. Every revolution of the stepper motor is divided into a discrete number of steps, in many cases 200 steps, and the motor must be sent a separate pulse for each step. The stepper motor can only take one step at a time and each step is the same size. Since each pulse causes the motor to rotate a precise angle, typically 1.8°, the motor’s position can be controlled without any feedback mechanism. As the digital pulses increase in frequency, the step movement changes into continuous rotation, with the speed of rotation directly proportional to the frequency of the pulses. Step motors are used every day in both industrial and commercial applications because of their low cost, high reliability, high torque at low speeds and a simple, rugged construction that operates in almost any environment.

Motor specification : NEMA 23, 2phase bipolar motor.

1.6.3 L298N DC motor driver module :

Fig.3

Everywhere DC motors are used in large applications, the use of drives are very necessary for the smooth running and operating of these motors. The DC motor drives are used mainly for good speed regulation, frequent starting, braking and reversing.

Descripition:

Module name : dual H bridge motor drive module Work mode : H bridge drive (double road) Main control chip : L298N Packaging : electrostatic bag Logical voltage : 5V Drive voltage : 5v-35v Logical current : 0mA-36mA Driving current : 2A(MAX single bridge) Storage temperature : – 20 ? to + 135 ? Maximum power : 25W Weight : 30 g Peripheral dimensions : 43*43*27mm Product features: This module USES L298N as the main drive chip, with strong driving ability, low heat and strong anti-interference ability. Through this module can use the built-in 78 m05 drive power supply parts of their work, but in order to avoid the voltage regulator chip damage, when using the driving voltage is greater than 12 v, please use the external power supply 5 v logic. This module USES a large capacity filter capacitance, a continuation protection diode, can improve reliability. Notes: 1. When you are driving voltage (above logo for the 12 v input, can actually accept input range is 7 to 12 v) for 7 v to 12 v, can make to onboard power supply 5 v logic, when using the onboard after 5 v power supply, interface of + 5 v The power supply does not input voltage, but can yield 5V voltage for external use. ? 2. When the driving voltage is higher than 12V, it is less than or equal to 24V (the chip manual proposes to support 35V, but according to the book When the maximum voltage is applied to the maximum voltage of 298 conservative applications to 24V, for example, the motor with a rated voltage of 18V shall be driven. You must first remove the board 5V output to enable the jumper cap. Then 5V is accessed outside the 5V output port The 5V enables the power to be a control signal with a level of 5V. When the signal input is valid, and when the power supply is normal in the motor drive module, the motor drive module outputs the current. Otherwise, even if the power supply is normal, there is no current on the motor. Voltage to L298N internal logic circuit power supply.

1.6.4 Arduino UNO R3 Microcontroller board :

Fig.4

The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. It contains everything needed to support the microcontroller; simply connect it to a computer with a USB cable or power it with a AC-to-DC adapter or battery to get started.

The Uno differs from all preceding boards in that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it features the Atmega16U2 (Atmega8U2 up to version R2) programmed as a USB-to-serial converter.

Specifications:

ARDUINO MICROCONTROLLER

Microcontroller

ATmega328

Architecture

AVR

Operating Voltage

5 V

Flash memory

32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader

SRAM

2 KB

Clock Speed

16 MHz

Analog I/O Pins

6

EEPROM

1 KB

DC Current per I/O Pins general

40 mA on I/O Pins; 50 mA on 3″,3 V Pin

Input Voltage

7-12 V

Digital I/O Pins

20 (of wich 6 provide PWM output)

PWM Output

6

PCB Size

53.4 * 68.6 mm

1.6.5 LDR sensors :

Fig.5

A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) or a photo resistor is a device whose resistivity is a function of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Hence, they are light sensitive devices. They are also called as photo conductors, photo conductive cells or simply photocells.

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They are made up of semiconductor materials having high resistance.

A light dependent resistor works on the principle of photo conductivity. Photo conductivity is an optical phenomenon in which the materials conductivity is increased when light is absorbed by the material.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN

2.1 Design Methodology

We think about how to make prototype of it and than we come to a simple design of prototype given below.

Fig.6

We deside to use worm gear mechanism so we get standard worm and worm and design prototype according to it .

Fig.7

Specifications:

Z1 = no. of start on worm =1

Z2= no. of teeth on worm wheel=32

So, gear ratio “,

G= Z2/ Z1

=32/1

=32.

Here “,weight of concentrater is 14.3 kg

For safety we take it m=25 kg

As shown in figure below

Fig 8

As shown in figure above

Required torque T2=F*d

=25/3 Nm

Now”,

Lets T1 = torque in worm = torque required for motor

T2=torque in worm wheel

T1*Z1 = T2*Z2.

T1=[T2*(Z2/Z1)]/e (take efficience e=.5) …………………..(1)

=[T2/G]e =[(25/3)/32]/0.5

T1=.26041 Nm=73.7514 Oz-inch

2.2 Design Analysis

Here we 73.7514 Oz-inch torque for rotate concentrator so we have to take motor having torque more or equal(>=73.7514) it.

Consider all unvisible loses and other things we chose stepper motor NEMA 23 having holding torque 264 Oz-inch.

So from formula (1)

Here T1=264 Oz-inch

T2 = (T1*e)*32

= 264*.5*32

=4224 Oz-inch which is more than sufficient so mechanism will be run by stepper motor

2.3 DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION

AEIOU SUMMARY

ENVIRONMENT:

Humid

Sunny

Rainy

Dusty

INTERACTION:

Different weather

Different solar position

Worm and worm wheel

Stepper motor and motor driver

OBJECTS:

concentrator

worm and worm wheel

stepper motor

aurdino circuit

LDR

ACTIVITIES:

Tracking

Absorbing

Programming

USERS:

Industry

CAD Designers

Manufacturing Industry

General Public

EMPATHY CANVAS

USERS:

Industries

General Public

STAKEHOLDERS:

Government

ACTIVITIES:

It Should be Compact

It Should be Economical

It Should be Efficient

STORY BOARDING

HAPPY:

More efficiency will be achieved due to angle of incident will akways zero.

Easy to construct”,maintain and also economic

Also manually tracking is possible by handle

SAD:

(1)not affordable to common people

(2)Method of designing and manufacturing will be difficult.

IDEATION CANVAS

PEOPLE:

recidents

Industrialist

General Public

ACTIVITIES:

Automobiles

Heat Exchange

In hotels

SITUATION/CONTEXT/LOCATION:

Situation: To Increase Heat Transfer

Context: Related to Efficiency

Location: In Two hotels “,industries

PROPS/TOOLS/OBJECTS/EQUIPMENTS:

Worm and worm wheel

concentrator

Proper Material

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS:

PURPOSE:

To increase heat transfer

To increase efficiency

PEOPLE:

General public

industries

PRODUCT EXPERIENCE:

Design should be compact

Minimum loses

PRODUCT FUNCTIONS:

To reduce loses

To increase efficiency

PRODUCT FEATURES:

Increase efficiency

Compact size

COMPONENTS:

Worm and worm wheel

Stepper motor

Motor driver and aurdino

LDR

CUSTOMER REVALIDATION:

Try to make it more simple “,effective and userfriendly.

REJECT/REDESIGN/REVALIDATION:

Reject-Design Procedure

Redesign-Shape

Retain-Material

CHAPTER 3: IMPLEMENTATION

3.1 Arduino programming

Fig.9

We do programming for aurdino for automatic tracking of suns movement.

Here we first define inte LDR1 = A0

Int LDR2=A1

Here”,A0 and A1 is pin on aurdino on which LDR is connected .

Fig.9

Snape short given above shown programming for aurdino.

Here if eror is above the difference than motor will be rotates but it below than mot will not rotate .

Snape shots/modeling :

CHAPTER 4: SUMMARY

4.1 ADVANTAGES

Increasing effeciency due to increaced direct exposure to solar rays.

Helps you to find the perfect fit for unique job sight.

Manually tracking is also possible.

Advancement s in technology and reliability in electronics and mechanics.

Small size and low weight.

4.2 FUTURE SCOPE:

Due to convectional resources exhausted soon there is great scope in Renewable energy.as son is main source of energy “,scope in solar energy secror is much wider which is also supported by many government schemes like surya shakti kishan yojana ans establishment of International solar alliance in Gurugram”,hariyana.

more efficient Solar equipments can be made by attaching automatic solar tracking system with it.that will be more efficient and userfriendly economic.

REFERENCES

Research Papers:

Design, Construction, and Experimental Testing of a Parabolic Trough Collector for Process Heat Applications. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. Vol. 5, Issue 9, September 2016

Design, manufacture and testing of fiberglass reinforced parabola trough for parabolic trough solar collectors.A. Valan Arasu *, T. SornakumarDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai 625 015, Tamilnadu, India Received 8 February 2006; received in revised form 26 December 2006; accepted 2 January 2007. Available online 14 February 2007

Parabolic Trough Collector System for Low Temperature. Steam Generation: Design and Performance. Soteris Kalogirou. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Higher Technical Institute, PO Box 423. Nicosia. Cyprus

Lof, G. O. G. (2004) “Optimization of Focusing Solar Collector Design”, Journal for Engineering for Power, Vol. 85 Issue 3, pp. 221-228

APPENDIX

PPR-1

PPR-2

PPR-3

PPR-4

Business Model Canvas

Project movement

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