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Design and development of human following trolley

Design and development of human following trolley

Sayali N Joshi

Department of Electronics &

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SVERI’s College of Engineering”,

Pandharpur, India

Priyanka S Dixit

Department of Electronics &


SVERI’s College of Engineering”,

Pandharpur, India

Vaishnavi K Patki

Department of Electronics &


SVERI’s College of Engineering”,

Pandharpur, India

Abstract: This paper represents design and development of human following trolley using raspberry pi. In this communication between trolley and person is most important factor. A trolley works automatically and in order to interact and communicate with the person it should also be capable of following that particular person. Keeping this in mind, the goal of our work is to design and fabricate a robot that not only tracks the target but also moves towards by avoiding obstacles while tracking. In order to make things simpler, a unique handmade tag is placed on the person that trolley needs to follow. A small pi camera continuously captures the images of the unique tag and continuously compares it to the original tag. If it is matched then trolley moves further also it makes its way to move further by avoiding obstacles by using ultrasonic sensors. The simple tag removes this problem of uniqueness and makes task easy. The trolley is build mechanically and electrical components are also used. All processing is carried out using raspberry pi.

Keywords: – Raspberry pi, unique handmade tag, ultrasonic sensor, pi camera


Robotic technology has increased appreciably in couple of past years. In this rapid moving world, now there is a need of robot such as “Human Following Robot” that can interact and co-exist with them.

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To perform this task accurately, robot needs a mechanism that enables it to visualize a person and act accordingly. The robot must be intelligent enough to follow a person in crowded area, vivid environment and indoor and outdoor places.

· Advantages:

· It provides best possible result by maintaining accuracy.

· It reduces human efforts.

· It is easy to handle.

Here raspberry pi is credit-card-sized single board which is developed by UK based raspberry pi foundation. The raspberry pi has GPIO pins. Using L293D motor driver board, the robot is controlled by GPOI pins. Here a pi-camera is connected to a raspberry pi.

DC motors are being used for movement of robotic wheels i.e. to move right-left, forward or backward direction.

Fig 1:- Block Diagram

Raspberry Pi has a strong processing capacity because of using the ARM11 architecture and Linux-based system. In terms of control and interface, it has 8 GPIO, 1 UART, 1 I2C and 1 SPI, which basically meet the control requirement. There are simple and easy-used open source peripheral driver libraries. The wheels are controlled by DC motors which are dependent on driving motor.


In the paper “Android based robot using raspberry pi”(March 2017)auther Jayant Nivritti Patil and H.K Bhangale Android app”,raspberry pi are used as technology.In this by using android phone robot is controlled.[1]

In the paper “Smart phone based robotic arm control using raspberry pi and wi-fi”(August 2016) by K.AKHILA”,P.SAMPATH KUMAR uses robotic ARM”,android application”,raspberry pi.In this smart phone technique the delay and server problems are reduced as the wi-fi is used.[2]

In this paper “Design and Implementation of a system for wireless control of a robot “author Christian Hernandez”,Racial Poot”,Lizzie Narvaez, Erika Llanes and Victor Chi used Integrated circuit, Parallel port”,Atmega 168 Microcontroller”,Arduino”,X-bee”,Zigbee.Robot could be guded with certain freedom and autonomy without using wires.[3]

In the “Wi-fi based robotic ARM control using raspberry pi processor”(November 2016) by B.Prashanth Reddy”,C.Ramesh Kumar Reddy.In this Robotic arm, android application and

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wi-fi is used.The robotic arm can perform nearly same movements using stepper and DC motors having a precise control.[4]

In the “Autobot Monitor using smartphone device”(July 2014) by Ajinkya Shinde”,Atul Zambre”,Kunal Shira”,Vishal Shira Bluetooth is used so the range issue is arised.[5]

In the “Follower robotic cart using ultrasonic sensor”(March 2017)by Akshay Chalke”,Ashwini Bhor”,Pradnya Bhoite”,Uddhav Jadhav they used microcontroller and ultrasonic sensor.[6]

In the “Embedded system for robotic arm movement control using web server and zigbee communication” by V.Ramya, B.Palaniappan”,T.Akilan used zigbee to develop a robotic arm which should be controlled by an authorized person[7]


System consists of three wheel robotic vehicle mounted with a separate microprocessor and control unit along with different sensors and modules i.e. ultrasonic sensor and camera. The camera height is vertically self-adjusted and is initially mounted on robot at height of 4ftfrom ground to enhance the visual capability and effectiveness. This robotic vehicle is controlled by the user by means of an identification tag.

[image: image1.png]

Fig 2:- Working of Ultrasonic Sensor

There are several features of the project such as mechanical structure, design of circuit, tag detection and intelligent tracking system.

[image: image2.png]

Fig 3:- Flow Chart of Ultrasonic Sensor

A novel algorithm to process real time video is used to the unique tag. We have used computer vision camera for recognizing the tag at the back of person and an OpenCV python platform to develop this algorithm.


The objective of the follower robot is to track and follow the person which is obtained for which it uses ultrasonic sensor and pi-camera which detects the target and obstacles also and according to that raspberry pi executes further controlling actions.


This paper is effectively experimented & implemented for human following trolley, which captures the tag using pi-camera and follow the particular human. So this device is cost-effective and it reduces the human efforts. Also this device is utilized for various places like malls, hospitals, railway platforms etc.

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There are many interesting applications of this research in different fields whether military or medical. Wireless communication functionality can be added in the robot to make it more versatile and control from a large distance. This capability of robot could be used for military. By mounting real time video recorder.


[1]. Jayant Nivritti Patil ; H. K. Bhangale ; Android based robot using Raspberry pi , Published in: International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 2015 International Conference on DOI: 10.1109/ICAEE.2015.7506791 , 11 July 2016.

[2]. K. Akhila ; P. Sampath Kumar , Smart phone based robotic arm control using raspberry pi and wifi , Published in: International Journal of Advanced Technology and Innovative Research , 2016

[3]. Christian Hernandez ; Raciel Poot ; Lizzie Narwaez ; Erica Llanes ; Victor Chi , Published in: International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), 2010

[4]. B. Prashanth Reddy ; C. Ramesh Kumar Reddy , Wi-fi based robotic arm control using raspberry pi processor , Published in: International Journal and Magazine of Engineering , Technology, Management and Research (IJMETMR), 2016

[5]. Ajinkya Shinde ; Atul Zambre ; Kunal Shira ; Vishal Shira , Autobot monitor using smartphone devices , Published in: International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT), 2014

[6]. Akshay Chalke ; Ashwini Bhor ; Pradnya Bhoite ; Uddhav Jadhav, Follower robotic cart using ultrasonic sensor , Published in: IJESC 2017

[7]. V.Ramya”,B.Palaniappan”,T.Akilan “Embedded system for robotic arm movement control using web server and zig-bee communication “International conference on research trends in computer technologies (ICRTCT-2013)

Motor Driver

DC 1

Raspberry pi

Motor Driver


Ultrasonic Sensors

DC 2

DC 3

DC 4

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