Design and Fabrication of Electrical Vehicle
Varun Wania, Pratik Royb, Gajanan Maparic, Mrityunjay Pattedd”,Swapnil Narkhedee
a-c(U.G. Student, Department of Electrical Engineering, JSPM’S BSIOTR, Wagholi, Pune, Maharastra”,India.)
d-e(Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, JSPM’S BSIOTR, Wagholi, Pune, Maharastra”,India.)
Abstract: In today’s life vehicles are important factor. But due to environmental impact there is limitation of utilization of conventional vehicle. Places like airport, hospital, college campus gasoline vehicles are ban because of pollution. We observe the difficulties of old people, physical handicap and patients in public places. To avoid such problem electrical vehicle play important role. Generally we preferred electric cars which is driven by battery powered electric motor. Those vehicle are manufactured for above concern. The numbers of electric vehicles are increasing day by day because of environmental concern and high gasoline price. In this paper we focus on electrical tri wheeler. For this tri wheeler 36V lead acid battery is used and it is driven by BLDC motor. Controller is the brain of electric vehicle that controls functions of electrical parameters. In this paper we discuss about structural designing and fabrication of electrical triwheeler.
Keywords- Accelerator, Battery, Breaks, Controller, Motor.
© 2019 – Authors.
In our world where energy conservation and environmental protection are growing rapidly, this development is fulfill by electrical vehicle technology. This vehicle are able to provide emission free environment and urban transportation. Even we can consider conservation in power plant emission which produce fuel for gasoline vehicle. The use of electrical vehicle automatically reduce global air pollution. Therefore electrical vehicle creates good impact on transportation, environmental, economical aspects as well as give contribution in development of technology.
Therefore design and fabrication of electrical vehicle is become major concern. Battery operated vehicle eliminate need of fuel and become economical. It gives silent operation which reduce noise pollution as well. As design of vehicle gives us idea about looks and geographical structure. This design will help us to construction and mounting of electrical component. Design is also important for weight calculation and other physical quantities like body shape structure and tire diameter. This quantities are affect on aerodynamic of vehicle. Calculation of many factors like battery rating, size of motor are made easy due to design. Places of sensors are easy to specify due to design.
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
1) Kusekar S.K., Bandgar P.M, Andhale P.S, Adlinge G.H, Gaikawad V.V, Dhekale S.P. (2015) has conducted an experiment in Design and development of electrical car to illustrate an implementation of electric vehicle technology on a small scale.
2) K.Vignesh, P.Sakthi, A.Pugazhenthi, V.Karthikeyan, C.Vinothkumar (2015) performed an experiment in the Design and fabrication of Free Energy Bicycle which would produce a cheaper and effective result than the existing system.
3) U.Jawahar Surendra, JV.Mohanachari, C.Subhahan Basha, B.Anjaneyulu, Dr.G.Nagamalleswara Rao introduced an era where energy conservation has become the latest topic of discussion not only among erudite but also among the ordinary responsible denizens, for efficiency along with minimum pollutions has become the benchmark for any new automobile and in the same context “TRI WHEELED E-CAR ” come as the latest addition.
4) John M. Miller is interest in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) propulsion systems globally. This paper addresses this latter issue by presenting a summary of the globally accepted standard in hybrid power trains—the power split architecture, or more generically and in common usage, the electronic-continuously variable transmission.
III. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
Current scenario indicates that fossil fuels are depleting rapidly because of overuse of fuel vehicle. Generally the main fuel of conventional cars are petrol and diesel. Because of these fuel cause heavy damage to environment. The emission of gas like HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and NOx are contributing to increase global warming and dangerous to human being. There are many alternative for fuel like biogas, natural gas, bio diesel, peanut oil, linseed oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, etc.
The electric vehicle play important role to boost automobile in advance generation. Mostly electrical vehicle are driven by batteries. But the problem seen in this is it require steady long time to charge. It leads towards consume more conventional power for generation of electricity.
The design and fabrication work of electric vehicle start with the collection of data regarding the need for different EV components, chassis design and strength, battery power calculation, selection of motor, etc. the flowchart describe the plan of action carried out in order tips on discipline to design and Fabrication of the car from the development stage. After literature survey, brainstorming session was conducted to decide on possible features to be incorporated in the electric car.
V. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT, DESIGN AND FABRICATION
The Design of chassis was developed in SolidWorks Software and the hardware model was developed. The design of components started from scrap defining dimensions for each and every component. Various models were developed and tried before actually confirming the final design. Due to several reasons such as material wastage, weight, cost effectiveness, time involved in fabrication, difficulties in manufacturing many design changes were made and obtained as final model as shown in the figure 1 and 2.
VI. DESIGN CALCULATION
A. CALCULATION OF GRADE RESISTANCE
Grade Resistance = Gross Vehicle Weight * sinø
Grade or inclination angle ø = 0° [Since the surface is Flat]
Grade Resistance = 90 * sin (0°)
Grade Resistance = 0 N
B. ACCELERATION FORCE CALCULATION
FA = m * a
m = Gross Vehicle Weight / g
FA = Acceleration Force
m = Mass of the vehicle
g = Acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/sec²)
a = Required acceleration
m = 90 kg
a = final velocity – initial velocity /time
Final velocity = 25kmph = 6.944m/s
Initial velocity = 0m/s
Time = 25sec
a = 6.944/60
a = 0.11573 m/s²
FA = 90 * 0.11573
FA = 10.415 N
C. CALCULATION OF ROLLING RESISTANCE
Rolling Resistance = Gross Vehicle Weight * Crr
Gross Vehicle Weight is 90 kg = 882.9 N
Co-efficient of Rolling Resistance is 0.015 (Concrete-Fair)
Rolling Resistance = 882.9 * 0.015
Rolling Resistance = 13.2435 N
D. CLACULATION OF TOTAL TRACTIVE EFFORT
TTE = Rolling Resistance + Grade Resistance + Acceleration Force
TTE = 13.2435 + 0 + 10.415
TTE = 23.6585 N
E. CALCULATION OF TORQUE REQUIRED ON THE DRIVE WHEEL
Torque = Rf * TTE * r (wheel)
Rf = Friction factor = 0.7
r (wheel) = Radius of the drive wheel = 0.36m
Torque = 0.7* 23.658 * 0.36
Torque = 5.9618 Nm
VII. VEHICLE OPERATION SUMMARY
A battery bank with capacity 36V (12V * 3 nos. = 36V), 65Ah is connected to 36V, 1000W Permanent Magnet DC Motor using 16 sq. mm copper wire so as to withstand the load. This motor arrangement is connected to shaft with the help of chain transmission and gear arrangement.
Initially the PMDC motor draws power from the battery for starting at idle speed when acceleration is given through Throttle. Once ignition power lock is made on, the power from the battery is allowed to flow to the motor through controller circuit as per the acceleration requirement. As the motor starts rotating, the power is transferred from motor to the rear wheel shaft with the help of chain transmission which then drives the vehicle.
As the battery drains with use and time, solar charging and plug-in charging facility is provided to charge the battery.
VIII. FINAL ASSEMBLY
As per the above specifications the vehicle chassis was designed and components such as motor, batteries, controller and accessories were mounted. Thus the vehicle has been fabricated and components were painted. The fully assembled vehicle was tested on flat road under different load condition. Tables below shows the experimental results.
The real photographic view is as shown in figure below which also includes the side and front view.
1. Use of renewable energy used to recharge the battery.
2. Reduce greenhouse gas emission.
3. Beneficial to human health due to zero pollution.
4. This vehicle consumes no fuel and so it is more Eco friendly.
5. Zero Emission.
6. Reduction in time and electric power for recharging the battery.
7. Cheaper to run.
8. Easy to operate.
9. Simple construction and design as compared to conventional IC engine vehicle.
10. Cheaper and easy maintenance.
11. Due to use of IOT, controllability of our vehicle has become more easy and efficient as compared to conventional IC engine Vehicle.
1. This project suits well applicable in golf cart vehicle.
2. Mainly it can be used in small scale industry for transportation.
3. It can also be used as an On-road vehicle.
Case I: For gross weight of 120 kg (2 persons) and 450 m distance.
Sr. no. Current (A) Voltage (V) Time (min)
1 0 37.8 0
2 16 37.6 0.30
3 16 36.8 1
4 17 36.9 1.30
5 20 33.6 2
6 14 36.3 2.30
7 21 33.8 3
8 24 36.7 3.30
Case II: For gross weight of 167 kg (3 persons) and 900 m distance.
Sr. no. Current (A) Voltage (V) Time (min)
1 0 37.5 0
2 22 37.0 0.30
3 22 35.7 1
4 18 35.3 1.30
5 21 32.5 2
6 24 31.7 2.30
7 16 36.0 3
Case III: For gross weight of 210 kg (4 persons) and 2500 m distance.
Sr. no. Current (A) Voltage (V) Time (min)
1 0 37.1 0
2 26 36.5 0.30
3 22 36.0 1
4 14 35.8 1.30
5 16 33.4 2
6 20 35.9 2.30
7 24 34.1 3
8 22 33.9 3.30
9 20 34.0 4
10 20 34.1 4.30
11 20 34.4 5
12 18 35.5 5.30
The car is much comfortable which supports the driver for easy riding. It is very less weight compared to a small car and provides better safety than a two-wheeler. This project provides flexibility in operation and noiseless operation. The scope of this project lies in fully determining and understanding the functioning of car. This project gives solution to the old problems, where the most common problem arising from existing electric car is the recharging system. The conventional system leads to consume more conventional power and time.
This vehicle uses a Lead acid battery which needs replacement after some period. Instead of using Lead acid battery, we can switch over to Lithium-ion batteries which provides more life cycles and they are much reliable. We can use high rated DC motor to drive the high loads as possible. New inventions of lighter but stronger materials like carbon fibers, High strength polymers can help in reducing the overall weight of the car and thus smaller sized high efficiency motors can be used. In future, we can add solar panels to this car to make it more economical. We can encrypt the idea of multipurpose vehicle similar to existing, so that we can develop the electric car to the next level.
 Design and Development of Electric Car by Kusekar S.K., Bandgar P.M, Andhale P.S, Adlinge G.H, Gaikawad V.V, Dhekale S.P., International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 5, Issue 4, April 2015.
 Design and Fabrication of Self Charging Electric Vehicle by Srinivasa Kannan Jeyakanthan, Sudharshan V, International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, An ISO 3297: 2007 Certified Organization, Vol. 6, Issue 9, September 2017.
 M.R.El-Sharkawy, M.A.Mourad, M.M. M. Salem, M M. Youssef / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp.092-101, Construction of an Electric Vehicle Implemented in Egypt.
 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Propulsion System Architectures of the e-CVT Type by John M. Miller, Fellow, IEEE, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 21, NO. 3, MAY 2006.
 The State of the Art of Electric and Hybrid Vehicle by C. C. CHAN, FELLOW, IEEE, PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, VOL. 90, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2002.
First A. Mr. Varun Rajendra Wani has received his diploma in Electrical Engineering from MSBTE Mumbai, INDIA in year 2015 and now pursuing BE in Branch of Electrical Engineering from JSPM’s Bhivarabai Sawant Institute of Technology and Research, Wagholi, Savitribai Phule Pune University, INDIA. His area of interest is in Electrical Vehicle, Power Electronics, Digital Electronics, Renewable Energy, etc. He has done many mini projects based on Power Electronics, Automation, E-Vehicles, etc.
Second B. Mr. Roy Pratik Kanailal has received his diploma in Electrical Engineering from MSBTE Mumbai, INDIA in year 2015 and now pursuing BE in Branch of Electrical Engineering from JSPM’s Bhivarabai Sawant Institute of Technology and Research, Wagholi, Savitribai Phule Pune University, INDIA. His area of interest is in Electrical Vehicle, Electrical Design (AutoCAD Electrical), Automation, Renewable Energy, etc. He has done many mini projects based on Design, Automation, PLC-SCADA, E-Vehicles, etc.
Third C. Mr. Mapari Gajanan Rajesh has received his diploma in Electrical Engineering from MSBTE Mumbai, INDIA in year 2015 and now pursuing BE in Branch of Electrical Engineering from JSPM’s Bhivarabai Sawant Institute of Technology and Research, Wagholi, Savitribai Phule Pune University, INDIA. His area of interest is in Electrical Vehicle, Electrical Design (AutoCAD Electrical), Automation, Renewable Energy, etc. He has done many mini projects based on Design, Automation, PLC-SCADA, E-Vehicles, etc.
Fourth D. Proj. Mrityunjat Patted