TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONTENTS Page No
Table of Contents vi
List of figures vii
List of Tables viii
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Basic Introduction 1
1.2 About the Project 2
1.3 Block Diagram 3
1.4 Components Used In Project 3
1.5 Literature Review 4
1.6 Motivation 4
1.7 Objective 4
1.8 Need of Project 5
1.9 Project Plan 5
1.10 System Over view 5
1.11 Controls 6
Chapter 2: Component Specifications 8
2.1 HJ 450 frame 8
2.1.1 Types of Frame 9
2.2 Electronic Speed Controller 10
2.3 Brushless DC motor 11
2.3.1 Types of Motors 13
2.4 Propellers 15
2.5 Flight Controller 16
2.6 Fly Sky Transmitter and Receiver 17
2.7 Arduino Uno 19
2.8 GSM Modules 20
2.9 Carbon dioxide Sensor 21
2.10 Li-Po Battery 22
Chapter 3: Project Description 24
3.1 Principle of Operation 24
3.1.1 Flying Principle 25
3.1.2 Mechanism 26
3.1.3 Taking off and Landing Motion Mechanism 26
3.1.4 Processing of Received Signal 27
3.2 Software Analysis 28
3.2.1 Arduino Analysis 28
3.2.2 Digital Radio Software 28
3.3 Hardware Analysis 29
3.3.1 Frame 29
3.3.2 Soldering 30
3.3.3 Connection of ESC’S 31
3.3.4 Fixing of Brushless motors 31
3.3.5 Fixing of Propellers 32
3.3.6 Flight Control kk2.1.5 32
3.3.7 Synchronization of Transmitter and Receiver 34
3.3.8 Receiver Test 34
3.3.9 Receiver Parameters set to IDLE 34
3.3.10 Testing 34
3.3.11 Arduino with Co2 sensor and GSM –SIM 900A 35
3.4 Static Thrust Calculation 35
3.5 Trouble Shooting of the Project and difficulties faced 36
3.6 Disadvantages 36
Chapter 4: GSM Module 38
4.1 GSM module 38
4.1.1 Features 38
4.1.2 Application 38
4.1.3 Specifications 38
4.2 Interfacing the modem to Arduino 40
4.3 Working of GSM –SIM900A 41
Chapter 5: Carbon dioxide Sensor 42
5.1 CO2 Sensor 42
5.1.1 Sensor Design 42
5.1.2 Interfacing with Arduino 42
5.1.3 Working 43
5.2 Chemical CO2 sensor 43
5.2.1 Specifications 44
5.2.2 Applications 44
Chapter 6: Project Over view 44
6.1 Software Used 45
6.2 Arduino 45
6.2.1 Writing Sketches 45
6.2.2 Sketch book 45
6.2.3 Tabs, Multiple files and compilation 45
6.2.4 Upload 45
6.2.5 Libraries 46
6.2.6 Boards 46
6.2.7 Steps for writing program code 46
6.3 Applications 47
6.3.1 Civil and Commercial Applications 47
6.3.2 Military Applications 49
6.3.3 Environmental Applications 49
6.3.4 Industrial Applications 50
6.3.5 Agriculture Applications 50
6.3.6 Recent real time applications 50
6.4 Limitations 50
6.5 Modifications 51
Chapter 7: Result and Conclusion 52
7.1 Result Analysis 52
7.2 Conclusion 53
7.3 Future Scope 53
LIST OF FIGURES
Sr. No. Figure Name Page No.
1.1 Quadcopter Configurations 1
1.2 Block Diagram 3
1.3 Flight Controller Setup 5
1.4 Example of a quadcopter rolling left and right 6
1.5 Example of a quadcopter pitching forwards and backwards 7
1.6 Simple sketch of roll, pitch, yaw, and throttle 7
2.1 HJ-450 8
2.2 Aerial Quadcopter 9
2.3 Sport Quadcopter 9
2.4 Sport FPV Quadcopter 9
2.5 Mini Quadcopter 10
2.6 Frequency in variation Motors 11
2.7 ESC-30A 11
2.8 Brushless motor winding 12
2.9 Brushless Dc motor 1000 kv 13
2.10 Brushed Dc Motor 13
2.11 Brushless Dc motor-Permanent Magnet 14
2.12 Three-Phase Induction Motor 15
2.13 Single-Phase Induction Motor 15
2.14 Propellers 16
2.15 Flight Controller KK2.1.5 17
2.16 Fly sky transmitter and receiver –CT6B 19
2.17 Arduino Uno 20
2.18 SIM 900A 21
2.19 CO2 sensor- MG811 22
2.20 Lipo Battery 2200 mah 11.1 v 23
3.1 Take off Motion 24
3.2 Landing Motion 24
3.3 Forward Motion 25
3.4 Back Ward Motion 25
3.5 Right Motion 25
3.6 Left Motion 25
3.7 Pitch direction 26
3.8 Roll direction 26
3.9 Yaw direction 26
3.10 Pulse width Modulation 27
3.11 Pulse Position Modulation 27
3.12 PWM to PPM conversion 28
3.13 Digital Radio Software 29
3.14 HJ-450 4 axis Frame 30
3.15 Chassis 30
3.16 ESC Wiring 31
3.17 Over View of HJ 450 31
3.18 Brush less Dc Motor 1000 kv 32
3.19 Propellers 32
3.20 Flight Controller KK.2.1.5 34
4.1 Interfacing Gsm Module to Arduino 40
4.2 Bread board Connections of SIM 900A 40
5.1 Interfacing of CO2 sensor with Arduino 42
5.2 Arduino Pin Connection 43
6.1 Pick and drop Quadcopter 47
6.2 Air Inspection Quadcopter 48
6.3 Aerial Quadcopter 48
6.4 Ambulance Quadcopter 49
6.5 Fire Control Quadcopter 49
6.6 Agriculture Quadcopter 50
7.1 Quadcopter 53
LIST OF TABLES
Sr. No. Table Name Page No.
1.1 List of Components 3
4.1 Specifications of GSM Module 38
4.2 Operation Conditions of GSM 39
4.3 Operating Modes of GSM 39
4.4 Serial Interfacing 39
GSM Global System For mobile Communication
SMS Short Messaging Service
AP Acronym for Aerial Photography
FPV First Person View
ARA Almost ready to fly
BEC Battery Eliminator Circuit
BNF Bind N Fly
RTF Ready to Fly
APM Auto Pilot Mega
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Basic Introduction
Over the last few years it has been seen that, massive growth in the manufacture and sales of remote control airborne vehicles known as Quadcopters. These Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have four arms and fixed pitch propellers which are set in an X or + configuration with X being the preferred configuration.
Figure 1.1 Quadcopter Configurations
They are sometimes referred to as Drones, Quadrotors or Quadro-copters. In the standard format two propellers will spin in a clockwise direction with the other two spinning in an anticlockwise direction allowing the craft to vertically ascend, hover in the air and fly in a designated direction. The Quadcopter is a simple format with very few moving parts and has rapidly become a favourite vehicle for remote control enthusiasts and is widely being used as an effective Aerial photographic platform.
A large majority of the Quadcopters were originally built by hobbyists who understood the simplicity of the vehicle. By adding four motors and four propellers to a lightweight frame constructed of light wood, carbon fibres, or fibre glass then connecting it to a remote control transmitter via a small control board fitted with a gyroscopic stabilization system and connected to a Li-Po battery these craft were relatively simple to construct.
Experimentation has led to the configuration of variations of the Quadcopter by using different amounts of arms we have seen Tri-copters, Hex copters and Octocopters (with eight arms). Other configurations include a V-tail and an H frame variation.
The rapid advances in computing power, the efficiency of the coreless or brushless motors, smaller microprocessors the development of batteries and gyroscopic and accelerometer technology has all led to a proliferation of Quadcopter designs. The first Quadcopters were not designed for acrobatic flight as the development was concentrated on simple stable flight patterns but now this has all changed.
Micro and even Nano Quadcopters are being produced mainly in China that can perform intricate aerobatic moves, flips and barrel rolls that years ago would have been unthinkable.
Chinese companies like Hubsan have made tiny Nano Quadcopters. Quadcopters differ from conventional helicopters which use rotors which are able to vary the pitch of their blades dynamically as they move around the rotor hub.
In the early days of flight, quadcopters (then referred to as ‘quadrotors’) were seen as possible solutions to some of the persistent problems in vertical flight; torque-induced control issues (as well as efficiency issues originating from the tail rotor, which generates no useful lift) can be eliminated by counter-rotation and the relatively short blades are much easier to construct.
1.2 About the Project
Quadcopter, also known as quadrotor helicopter or quadrotor, is a multirotor helicopter that is lifted and propelled by four rotors. Quadcopters are classified as rotorcraft, as opposed to fixed-wing aircraft, because their lift is generated by a set of rotors. In a quadcopter, two of the propellers spin in one direction (clockwise) and the other two spin the opposite direction (counter-clockwise) and this enables the machine to hover in a stable formation.
Firstly the motors which we used have an obvious purpose: to spin the propellers. Motors are rated by kilovolts, the higher the kV rating, the faster the motor spins at a constant voltage. Next the Electric Speed controller or ESC, is what tells the motors how fast to spin at any given time. We need four ESCs for a quadcopter, one connected to each motor.
The ESCs are then connected directly to the battery through either a wiring harness or power distribution board. Many ESC1s come with a built in battery eliminator circuit (BEC), which allows you to power things like your flight control board and radio receiver without connecting them directly to the battery. Because the motors on a quadcopter must all spin at precise speeds to achieve accurate flight, the ESC is very important.
Quadcopter uses four propellers, each controlled by its own motor and electronic speed controller. Using accelerometers we are able to measure the angle of the Quadcopter in terms of X Sketchbook menu or from the Open button on the toolbar. The first time you run the Arduino software, it will automatically create a directory for your sketchbook. You can view or change the location of the sketchbook location from with the Preferences dialog. 6.2.3 Tabs, Multiple Files, and Compilation .
6.2.3 Tabs, Multiple Files, and Compilation
Allows you to manage sketches with more than one file (each of which appears in its own tab). These can be normal Arduino code files (no visible extension), C files (.c extension), C++ files (.cpp), or header files (.h).
Before uploading your sketch, you need to select the correct items from the Tools > Board and Tools > Port menus. The boards are described below. On the Mac, the serial port is probably something like /dev/tty.usbmodem241 (for an Uno or Mega2560 or Leonardo) or /dev/tty.usbserial-1B1 (for a Duemilanove or earlier USB board), or /dev/tty.USA19QW1b1P1.1 (for a serial board connected with a Key span USB-to-Serial adapter). On Windows, it’s probably COM1 or COM2 (for a serial board) or COM4, COM5, COM7, or higher (for a USB board) – to find out, you look for USB serial device in the ports section of the Windows Device Manager. On Linux, it should be /dev/ttyACMx , /dev/ttyUSBx or similar.
Once you’ve selected the correct serial port and board, press the upload button in the toolbar or select the Upload item from the File menu. Current Arduino boards will reset automatically and begin the upload. With older boards (pre-Diecimila) that lack auto-reset, you’ll need to press the reset button on the board just before starting the upload. On most boards, you’ll see the RX and TX LEDs blink as the sketch is uploaded. The Arduino Software (IDE) will display a message when the upload is complete, or show an error.
When you upload a sketch, you’re using the Arduino bootloader, a small program that has been loaded on to the microcontroller on your board. It allows you to upload code without using any additional hardware. The bootloader is active for a few seconds when the board resets; then it starts whichever sketch was most recently uploaded to the microcontroller. The bootloader will blink the on-board (pin 13) LED when it starts (i.e. when the board resets).
Libraries provide extra functionality for use in sketches, e.g. working with hardware or manipulating data. To use a library in a sketch, select it from the Sketch > Import Library menu. This will insert one or more #include statements at the top of the sketch and compile the library with your sketch. Because libraries are uploaded to the board with your sketch, they increase the amount of space it takes up. If a sketch no longer needs a library, simply delete its #include statements from the top of your code.
There is a list of libraries in the reference. Some libraries are included with the Arduino software. Others can be downloaded from a variety of sources or through the Library Manager. Starting with version 1.0.5 of the IDE, you do can import a library from a zip file and use it in an open sketch.
The board selection has two effects: it sets the parameters (e.g. CPU speed and baud rate) used when compiling and uploading sketches; and sets and the file and fuse settings used by the burn bootloader command. Some of the board definitions differ only in the latter, so even if you’ve been uploading successfully with a particular selection you’ll want to check it before burning the bootloader.
6.2.7 Steps for Writing Program Code
Arduino microcontrollers come in a variety of types. The most common is the Arduino UNO, but there are specialized variations. Before you begin building, do a little research to figure out which version will be the most appropriate for your project.
To begin, you’ll need to install the Arduino Programmer, aka the integrated development environment (IDE).
Connect your Arduino to the USB port of your computer. This may require a specific USB cable. Every Arduino has a different virtual serial-port address, so you ‘ll need to reconfigure the port if you’re using different Arduinos.
Set the board type and the serial port in the Arduino Programmer.
Test the microcontroller by using one of the preloaded programs, called sketches, in the Arduino Programmer. Open one of the example sketches, and press the upload button to load it. The Arduino should begin responding to the program: If you’ve set it to blink an LED light, for example, the light should start blinking.
To upload new code to the Arduino, either you’ll need to have access to code you can paste into the programmer, or you’ll have to write it yourself, using the Arduino programming language to create your own sketch. An Arduino sketch usually has five parts: a header describing the sketch and its author; a section defining variables; a setup routine that sets the initial conditions of variables and runs preliminary code; a loop routine, which is where you add the main code that will execute repeatedly until you stop running the sketch; and a section where you can list other functions that activate during the setup and loop routines. All sketches must include the setup and loop routines.
Once you’ve uploaded the new sketch to your Arduino, disconnect it from your computer and integrate it into your project as directed.
6.3.1. Civil and commercial applications
• Pick and drop
This is the modern era application of drones, they can carry weights up to certain limit and delivery them to the destination. Best example amazon and DHL are considering drone based delivery services for their products
Figure 6.1 Pick and drop Quadcopter
• Toys for children
Micro or mini drones are specially designed for kids that are easy to control and use.
• Air inspection
Drones are used in aircraft companies in inspecting the aircraft before takeoff & landing
Figure 6.2 Air Inspection Quadcopter
• Communication Purpose
Now a days drones are used for Telecom relay and signal coverage survey.
• Aerial Photography
This application is widely used now a days. Music concerts or any functions where there is a
large gathering of people, they can be photographed using aerial only.
Figure 6.3 Aerial Quadcopter
• Ambulance Drone
Ambulance drones was implemented successfully in Finland, these drones carry the equipment necessary for emergency condition. The basic fir aid kit will also be present in this drone.
Figure 6.4 Ambulance Quadcopter
6.3.2. Military Applications
• Drones with the help of gps can track particular person or vehicle movement.
• Identifying enemy movements
• In search and rescue operations
• Many military operations uses drones for live coverage of the mission .Rescuing hostages and civilians is the main objectives of these operations. Drones are used to check the condition of the hostages
• Video surveillance
6.3.3. Environmental Applications
• Fire Control
Figure 6.5 Fire Control Quadcopter
Fires caused in forests due to various reasons are very difficult to control. These can be controlled effectively by means of drone. Drones will carry water of some sort of solutions.
Drone installed with gas sensors helps to detect the amount of gases present in the particular area in the atmosphere. These figures can be stored in the memory card or send to us by using
gsm module. For using gas sensors we need to use Arduino for interfacing.
• Wild life surveillance
Many wild life species are going to extinct now a days due to radiation, hunters etc. . .this can be prevented by tracking and surveillance of wild life animals.
6.3.4. Industrial Applications
• Inspection in areas where humans can’t go
• Spotting leakages
6.3.5. Agriculture Applications
• Pesticide springler
The revelutionising concept of drone farming was being developed in many countries in which drones with the help of sprinklers sprinkle the pesticide in the fields and also used for video survalence of the fields.
Figure 6.6 Agriculture Quadcopter
6.3.6. Recent Real time Applications
• Indian army develops ‘Netra’ UAV against terrorists
The 1.5 kg UAV, called ‘Netra’, is a collaborative development project between idea Forge, a company formed by a group of Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, alumni and one of Defense Research and Development Organization’s Pune-based labs, Research and Development Establishment (Engineers) (R&DE) Pune.
• An EYE in the sky during the Jharkhand flood.An ultrasonic human detection camera was used to find the bodies of the people under the buildings and mud .
They do however, have a few disadvantages. Not having a pilot on board means that human
intuition is lost which can sometimes be a helpful tool in a number of the UAVs uses.
Also in warfare, not being on the aircraft and seeing the destruction and killing first hand has been argued to desensitize the UAV operators as they see people only as a blip on a screen and therefore can become ‘trigger happy’ and not worry so much about the civilian casualties. ‘Analysis by an American think tank The Brookings Institution on drone attacks in Pakistan has shown that for every militant leader killed, 10 civilians also have died. Keith Shurtleff, an army chaplain and ethics instructor at Fort Jackson, South Carolina worries “that as war becomes safer and easier, as soldiers are removed from the horrors of war and see the enemy not as humans but as blips on a screen, there is very real danger of losing the deterrent that such horrors provide.”
Other plans in the future include adding a sonic sensor for more accurate altitude determination. Currently the only methods to determine altitude is by using the barometric pressure sensor and the GPS receiver. There is no actual way to safely determine the quadcopters altitude relative to its landing surface. A sonic sensor could solve this problem, and be used to help aid the auto- landing command. Another modification can be done by adding more methods of collecting data. Many ports still remain unused on the control board. Adding a camera could allow for digital photo or video to be taken. Adding some way to stream data from the quadcopter to the controller could be another great feature to add to our quadcopter, this would allow for even easier access to the data collected by the quadcopter. Smart phone capabilities could be another feature our group may want to add in the future.
CHAPTER 7: Result and conclusion
7.1 Result Analysis
After configuring all the parts, assembling as required, configuring Software, finally we obtained our quadcopter which is shown below. We need to test the Acceleration Calibration every time when we change the ground surface area.
Figure 7.1 Quadcopter
Figure 7.2 Quadcopter along with transmitter
As per the design specifications, the quad copter self stabilizes using the array of sensors integrated on it. It attains an appropriate lift and provides surveillance of the terrain through the camera mounted on it.
It acts appropriately to the user specified commands given via a remote controller .Its purpose is to provide real time audio/video transmission from areas which are physically in-accessible by humans. Thus, its functionality is monitored under human supervision, henceforth being beneficial towards military applications. It is easy to manoeuvre, thereby providing flexibility in its movement.
It can be used to provide surveillance at night through the usage of infrared cameras. The system can further be enhanced for future prospects. The GPS data logger on the quadcopter stores its current latitude, longitude, and altitude in a comma separated value file format and can be used for mapping purposes.
This project required members not only to interface and program the components of the quadcopter, but also exposed them to mechanical components and reality of project management to accomplish the project objectives.
7.2 Future Scope
Future of a quad-copter is quite vast based on various application fields it can be applied to. Quad-copter can be used for conducting rescue operations where it’s humanly impossible to reach. In terms of its military applications it can be more widely used for surveillance purposes, without risking a human life.
As more automated quad-copters are being developed, there range of applications increases and hence we can ensure there commercialization. Thus quad-copter can be used in day to day working of a human life, ensuring their well-being.
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