The development of times is increasingly sophisticated, especially in the field of technology. Technology was created to facilitate human work. In the industrial world, technology also continues to be used to simplify work and help companies achieve their production targets. The industrial world is now entering difficult times because of Indonesia’s sluggish economy and also due to the increasing demands of production costs every year. Many factories went bankrupt because they were unable to survive in this difficult time. As stated by the Economic and Social Research Institute, that many companies are rolling out due to the country’s economic conditions, it also has an impact on the number of layoffs carried out by companies that are unable to survive in these difficult conditions (Glienmaurinsie, 2015).
One alternative to be able to get around the economy that is not stable and to reduce production costs is to utilize technology as best as possible and to maximize the potential of employees. It is important for companies to help employees achieve a balance between the demands of their work and home life so that they can help employees achieve their best productivity and performance (Delina, 2013). An employee is expected to perform optimally because the company demands to achieve a high level of productivity where the job demads will automatically reduce the time spent by employees in their family environment. An imbalance between work demands and family demands can lead to employee job dissatisfaction (Balmforth dan Gardner, 2006).
Employees who are married face problems in taking care of their families if their workload is too burdensome or takes a lot of time that should be spent taking care of the family. Whereas for unmarried employees, this imbalance arises when they do not have free time to do hobbies or gather with friends because they are burdened by too much workload (Makela, Liisa, Vesa and Helene, 2011). Fisher (2009) described the balance between work and personal life or work-life balance as a time and individual energy competition used to carry out different roles in his life. According to a survey conducted by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology US to employees in 2015, found results that 70% of employees complained about the length of duration of working hours so that the duration of meeting family became shorter (kompasiana, 2018). Eby, Lockwood, Bordeaux & Brinley (Parkes & Langford, 2008) work-life balance (work-family conflict) importance for the health and well-being of individuals and family. Reduce stress and greater life satisfaction are related to work-life balance, the relationship indicated strengthening over time (Allen, Herst, Bruck & Sutton, in Parkes & Langford, 2008).
Based on the results of research conducted by Pandita (2017) the work-life balance of employees is related to a sense of employee attachment to the company. The better employee engagement, the better the work-life balance or the balance between employee’s work and family life. Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric (Pandita, 2017) argued that organizations want more commitment and loyalty from their employees, the one who wants to give the best in his involvement in the company and therefore, the organization will be more productive and tend to get excellence competitive. Engagement is something when the organization wants its employees to give 100% in all domains such as productivity, creativity, and innovation (Harter, Schmidt dan Hayes, 2002). Marciano (Akbar, 2013) further explained that employee engagement has many advantages for the company, there are increasing employee productivity in work, reducing employee turnover of the company, increasing efficiency in the company, reducing fraud that occurs in the company environment, increasing customer satisfaction, reducing absenteeism employees, minimize employee complaints against the company, and reduce workplace accidents in the company.
Schaufeli and Bakker (2004), explain employee engagement as a positive thinking from the individual, which can be interpreted as thinking to solve every problem and all things related to work, and characterized by vigor (individual energy and mental resilience when working), dedication (individuals participate in work and experience a sense of enthusiasm and challenge at work), the last characteristic is absorption (individual concentration in completing work and feeling of pleasure in work).
Basically, the company expects its employees to be able to maximize their potential and capabilities. It is undeniable that every human being has limitations, as well as employees who have many limitations in doing their work and also to do their highest ability at all times. Based on data from the results of Crompton’s research, 2011 (Novess, 2015) that the effects of stress on the workplace are estimated to harm Canadian entrepreneurs more than 20 billion dollars every year through absenteeism, sick leave and decreased productivity. Over the past two decades, Canadians have reported higher stress levels, increased work hours and more work done outside normal working hours. This imbalance between work and life has a far-reaching impact on employee performance and their health. Constant state of completing the work of employee involvement in the company may have negative effects and consequences within the organization, in this case fatigue felt by employees and loss of employee creativity in completing work (Asiwe, Jorgensen, and Hill, 2014). Fatigue conditions in employees can be interpreted as burnout. As defined by Maslach and Leiter (2016), Burnout is a psychological syndrome that arises as a prolonged response to chronic interpersonal stress in work characterized by extreme fatigue, feelings of cynicism about work, and a sense of ineffectiveness or lack of personal achievement. Shanafelt et. al (2009; 2012) defined Burnout is a syndrome of emotional in work, feelings of ineffectiveness and a tendency to see someone as an objects rather than as human beings. In a study conducted by Shanafelt, Hasan, Dyrbye, Sinsky, Satele, Sloan & West (2015), burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance in US Physician worsened and more than half of US Physicians are now experiencing professional burnout.
Based on data from the HR admin team at PT. X shows that the attendance rate of employee overtime is low, only around 20-30% of employees want to come overtime on Sundays. Based on the data provided by the HR admin section for the last three months of February to May, describes the level of employee attendance for overtime on Sunday is very low. It is possible that employees have experienced fatigue during work from Monday to Saturday, which makes employees reluctant to do overtime on Sundays. Some of the employees interviewed also said that Sunday is used for families, because they had been working from Monday to Saturday. This is similar to what happened in Canada, Canadians have reported a higher level of stress due to increased working hours as described above. So based on the problems above the researcher proposed a study entitled The effect of employee engagement and burnout on the work-life balance on employees of PT.X.
Respondents of this study were 91 employees in Jababeka – Cikarang which all respondents are male employees. The sampling technique used stratified sampling with a proportional approach of 3 parts manufacture.
The research method used in this study is the Quantitative Research Method. In general, quantitative research is a study with a large number of samples. With quantitative methods, the significance of group differences or the significance of the relationships between the variables under study will be obtained. Basically, a quantitative approach is carried out on inferential research (in the framework of testing hypotheses) and relying on the conclusion of the results on a probability of rejecting the null hypothesis.
The research data collected procedure begins with an adaptation 3 instruments by back-forward translate and expert judgment by three expert judgements who experts in psychology industry and psychometry. The instrument used for employee engagement measurement uses a questionnaire from Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), developed by Schaufelli and Baker (2004), for burnout measurements using a standardized questionnaire from Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS), developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981), and for work-life balance measurements is the Work-Life Balance Scale developed by Fisher (2009).
Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) consists of 17 items with overall favorable items and is divided into 3 dimensions, there are 6 items of vigor, 5 items of dedication, and 6 items of absorption. Reliability for UWES obtained Cronbach alpha value of 0.850. Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS) consists of 16 items with 10 favorable items and 6 unfavorable items and divided into 3 dimensions, there are 5 items of exhaustion, 5 items of cynicism and 6 items of professional efficacy.. Reliability for MBI-GS obtained Cronbach alpha value of 0.784. Work Life Balance Scale (WLBS) consists of 17 items with overall favorable items where the items are divided into several parts, there are 5 items for WIPL dimensions, 6 items for PLIW items, 3 items for WEPL, and 3 items for PLEW. Reliability for WLBS obtained Cronbach alpha value of 0.851.
Researchers used multiple regression to test the hypotheses. Multiple regression is a statistical technique that aims to find linear equations that produce the most accurate predictive value for Y using more than one predictor variable (X) (Kaplan, Robert M. and Dennis P. Saccuzzo, 2012). this study was to determine the effect of independent variables simultaneous (work engagement and burnout) toward to dependent variable work-life balance).
ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
In this study, descriptive analysis was conducted aimed at finding out the frequency of statistics from respondents who had collected the research. besides this descriptive analysis is done to make conclusions which certainly apply to generalizations or general. From the results of the study obtained data on descriptive data from WLB, EE and IT where data will be compared from reality obtained from the results of the study compared with the expected values of the norms of measuring instruments used.