Economic Development and Women Enterpreneurship
Dept. Of Commerce & Management
Dr.S. Gopalaraju Government First Grade College, Anekal
Women plays vital role in accomplishing the transformational, financial, conservational and social changes required for sustainable growth. Women entrepreneurs is the key not only to the welfare of individual members of the family but also to overall economic growth of the nation. Half of the world’s population is represented by women; women constitute only one third of the economic enterprises. Women –owned businesses enterprises are playing a more active role in society and the economy, Women entrepreneurship is gaining importance in India in the wake of economic liberalization and globalization, framing policies and institutional and development training programe has widened the horizon for economic empowerment of women. There exists a plethora of successful business women entrepreneurship both in social and economic fields in India. Government of India has also introduced National Skill Development policy and National Skill Development Mission in 2009 in order to provide skill training, vocational education and entrepreneurship development in the emerging work force. Women –owned business enterprises are playing a more active role in society and in the economy. This paper focuses on the problems, issues, challenges faced by women entrepreneurs, how to overcome them and to analyses problems faced by them while pursuing their business.
Key words: Women entrepreneurship, challenges, Role of Government &Suggestions.
“If opportunity doesn’t knock, build a door- Milton Berle”
Economic growth and development of any country are determined by human, physical and financial resources. An economy can move on to higher levels of growth either by acquiring a larger quantum of the factors of production or technical process, this humorous take on the popular idea of opportunity knocking at your door, could be a key to boosting women’s participation in employment and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs is the process in which women initiate a business, gather all resources, undertake risk, face challenges , provide employment to others and manages the business independently, Approximately 50% of the entrepreneurs in the world are women entrepreneurs .Women Entrepreneurs development activity aims at enhancing policies to support in the policy framework and at giving a stronger role to women in the social and economic development. This is expected to generate an increased number of women starting businesses, thus contributing to development of employment opportunities and reducing poverty.
According to Government of of India women enterprise can be defined as” an enterprise owned and controlled by women having a minimum financial interest of 51% of capital and employing at least 51% of women”
Merriam-Webster’ definition that explains entrepreneur as “one who organizes, manages and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise”
Harvard Business School Professor Howard Stevenson, whose research and teaching focused on the c field of entrepreneurship is the pursuit of opportunity beyond resources controlled”
Women entrepreneurship means an act of business ownership, creation and controlling which empowers women economically increases their economic strength as well as position in society. Entrepreneurship is not just confined to any one gender now rather due to multi faced economic pressures women have turned up and realized that the survival of their families and their own potentials lies only in working side by side with men.
Meaning of women entrepreneurship refers to business or organization started by a women or group of women. There has been a change in role of women due to growth in education, urbanization, industrialization and awareness of democratic values.
Objectives of Women Entrepreneurs
Women entrepreneurs were given many opportunities in starting new businesses and supports internationally, female –run enterprise are steadily growing all over the world, as per 2001 census: women constitute nearly half of the India population. Out of this total, 72% were engaged in agriculture, 21.7% in other non-agriculture pursuits with only 6.3% in household industries, as a result their entrepreneurial skills and abilities are not properly utilized for the development of the nation. The promotion of entrepreneurship among women at national, state or District level, necessitates removing social, economic, educational and in situational constraints enhancing information flows, providing access to credit, skill development programs, trade support services , technical and business and support service and marketing promotion. The main objectives can be cited as follows
1) The overall objectives is to promote the context for a network of strategies for women upliftment and development with equity and roll playing.
2) The aim of the study to ’Strategic separation’ in programs, formulation of policies. Separation in sometimes is needed for women to gain confidence and experience, enable them to integrate with men for the development of country.
3) A very important issue is to change the attitude of family and society towards women specifically in backward areas.
Kamalakannan(2005) Investigated the development of entrepreneurship among has become an important aspects of the overall economic development. This article gives a detailed analysis of financial institutions commercial banks and NGOs engaged I financing and promoting entrepreneurship among women.
K.Lavanya latha(2006) Suggested that the hard work, self-confidence, self-determination, personality traits and availability of timely financial support were the important factors for success of women entrepreneurs.
Organization promoting women Entrepreneurship in India
Federation of societies of women entrepreneurship (FSWE)
Small Entrepreneurship Development Institute of india (DEDII)
District Industries Centres(DIC)
Development of women & Children in rural ares (DWCRA)
Prime minister Rojgar Yojana(PMRY)
National Resource center for women (NRCW)
Women’s India Trust(WIT)
Women Development Corporation(WDC)
Association of women entrepreneurs of Karnataka(AWAKE)
Working women’s forum(WWF)
Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA)
With reference to Krishnagiri District a sample of women entrepreneurs have been
selected for the research purpose and important facts have been collected through questionnaire and
analytical method of statistical stydy has been adopted. In thiregard, Subject matter published by government , non-government institutions, industrial organization s, reference books, periodicals , journals, magazines, other available matter, is being used for taking various information and numerical analysis.
Factorial Analysis of the Actual position of women entrepreneurs
The physical survey is based on the information given by women entrepreneurs in the questionnaire. The actual visit to various centers as Nipped center, Beauty parlors, Boutiques and jute bag making, Tailoring, Typing, ZEROX BOTH coir making business show the real position of women entrepreneurs and their labour , zeal, will to work and problems faced by them.
The following table shows picture of financial assistance available by the women entrepreneurs.
S.NO Name of the Scheme No.of Persons
4 No financial Assistance
Women Entrepreneurs scheme of Bank
Commercial Banks under SSI unit Development schemes
Women Development scheme 11
The table shows that 22% of women entrepreneurs have confirmed that they have not
received any financial assistance, 24% of women entrepreneurs enjoying loan facilities through banks
and7% of women entrepreneurs utilizing commercial banks further development of their business
activities based on collateral security remaining 8% from government organization.
The schemes of government other financial institution s are very attractive but women in remote
areas women SC/ST, MBC, BC, category and those who are not very much educated are reluctant to go
to the government and non-government commercial agencies for loans and other financial assistance.
Their level of satisfaction to earn their live hood is achieved by their own investment.
Investment in Business/Service
The return from a business enterprise is quite dependable on the amount of
investment. With meager investment, they will be a small gain irrespective of good turn over.
Investment in Business
Sl.no Amount Invested(Rs) Percentage
5 0- 15″,000
Above 1″,00″,000 14
Most of the small investors below 15″,000 numbered as about 14% of the
entrepreneurs, 24 % of the entrepreneurs were to Rs. 30″,000. Only 14% were found investors up
to Rs 50″,000. With the increase of cost of equipment and machinery about 36% reported to have
invested Rs. 50″,000 to 1″,00″,000.12 % of the investment size of plant, machinery and other
equipment’s emphasizes that very few women entrepreneurs have invested huge amount for their
business. Others who have invested lesser amount should also be considered successful
entrepreneurs since they are earning sufficiency.
Average Annual Income
The main objectives of women entrepreneurship is economic independence through
entrepreneurial development activity during the survey”,80% of the women could not be able to
give correct information about their gross income and net profit. The facts regarding business
income have been tabulated in the manner below
Average Annual Income
Sl.no Average AnnuaL Income No.of persons(%)
6 0- 15″,000
Average annual income on the basis of sales and Net profit is not normally
ascertained by the women entrepreneurs in krishnagiri. One of the major problems is the
problem of finance. An entrepreneur is short of working capital and fixed capital. Most of
the entrepreneurs are short of financial resources and manpower resources. Women
entrepreneurs are not having access to bank credit and they are marginally covered by the
banking system. To concluding with some suggestions are given.
Level of Satisfaction
Sl.No Particulars Percentage
5 More Satisfied
Satisfied but trying for better achievement
Not satisfied 45
Out of total surveyed women entrepreneurs, 45% of respondent reported more satisfied”,
regularly they planned to their activities properly and selecting suitable market segmentations, contacting
market support, 35% of the respondent were satisfied with their efficiency and making more efforts for
betterment. 5% of respondent were neutral due to unsupport of their family members, more male
domination etc, 10% of respondent were satisfied but trying for betterment and 5% of respondent were
not satisfied that overall returns based on understanding with the person.
Some of the suggestions relating to removal of the constraints based on the above factorial
analysis can be considered as follows:
• The process of loans sanctioning should not be complicated and time consuming. State
• government and financial institution must arrange free short term and long term training Programs and workshops.
• Create awareness about the market attitude, problems in marketing also minimized by the help of qualified expert management units.
• Create Good environment, closeness to home and children may be given to the worker and the entrepreneurship. There should be a women Entrepreneurs Guide dance cell to handle many schemes to help women and also educate them to maintain documentation
• Integrated development of training and employment is recommended by the committee All India Council for Technical Education, Polytechnic’s for women are to include a center with assistance from small scale industries.
• Central and state Governments giving more importance to framing policy and women welfare cell within the ministry of labour and employment opportunities under the directions of senior officer to resolve the difficulties of women entrepreneurs is required.
• Identification and establishment of training institutions which impart vocational training programs to develop entrepreneurial skill and make women aware of the support they could expect from development agencies
• Central and state government and also network agencies should take remedial measures for the specific problems faced by them and also special concessions should be extended to all categories of women entrepreneurs.
• Arrangements of Loans and advances, and more advance given for small units at lower interest rate without collateral security based on subsidy.
• Creating Group entrepreneurship is very ideal for the illiterate people, so that financial in situation creating the concept of group formation and clusters system, actually this the best strategy to enlighten women and provide necessary to self-employment in Krishnagiri District.
• Code of conduct may be adopted by national and international corporations guarantying that they will ensure the security and prevent exploitation of women entrepreneurs at all levels. A good environment makes more productivity and increase the capacity of working.
Finally, it can be concluded, through there has been a positive growth
in women entrepreneurship, giving more and more motivational and
encouragement and support be provided to them as it would certainly enhance their
socio-economic status, which is pre-requisite for economic development. The
future of women entrepreneurs is very bright and hopeful. There is a radical and
admirable change in the attitude of society. Government and financial institution
increases more and more facilities this lead to fulfill their needs, to attain their life
target. All their dreams will come true through their education, labour and endless
efforts for their empowerment and mankind. In new century in the present age of
globalization, women entrepreneurs in India will play a greater role and emerge the