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Evolution of the aviation industry

MAIN POINT 1: BOEING VS AIRBUS (THE MANUFACTURES)

Duopoly is a term used every so often in the aerospace industry and is generally defined as a state in which two suppliers dominate the market for a commodity, emphasis being on two suppliers. Competition between Boeing and Airbus dates back to the late 1990’s and has proven over time why a healthy competition is needed as motivation for both parties to give their best to succeed in the long run. It has commonly been assumed that Boeing is the largest supplier of aircrafts in the jet-airliner market and that Airbus was the only competitor that was able to challenge Boeing in terms of sales, profit and revenues. But looking back to the early 18th and 19th century’s when airplanes was first discovered there were no market for airplanes let alone competitors to challenge names such as the Wilbur brothers and Leonardo da Vinci.

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SUB POINT 1: SALES

According to Mocenco (2015) Boeing is considered the world’s largest airplane manufacturer and was elected number 52 on Forbes world’s biggest company list. Boeing is believed to have earned $95.8 Billion in sales for the year 2017 and the company’s current profit is at an astounding $9.2 Billion dollars. Boeings total assets are reported to be at $113.5 Billion and Boeings market value is estimated to be $199.5 Billion. According to Zubacheva (2017) recent reports states that Airbus was nominated number 101 on Fords world’s biggest company list. It is alleged that Airbus sales revenue is at a staggering $74.7 Billion and that its profit for the year of 2017 was at $3 Billion. The total assets which Airbus has in its possession is worth an approximate $138.3 Billion dollars and the market value of Airbus is estimated to be $92.1 Billion dollars. It has been re-counted that from 2007 to 2016 Airbus received 9″,985 orders and was able to produce 5″,644 planes, whereas Boeing got 8″,978 orders and was able to produce 5″,718 planes.

SUB POINT 2: DIFFERENCES

It is widely held view that there are tremendous differences between Boeing and Airbus especially in the aircrafts physical appearance. According to Hunter (2018) the most noticeable difference in terms of appearance is the fact that Airbus airplanes have a curved rounded nose, whereas Boeing airplanes are somewhat pointed at the nose. Another physical difference is that Airbus aircrafts generally place their engine underneath the wings, while Boeing mounts theirs on the front of the wing and lastly airbus doors can open parallel to aircraft outer surface while Boeing doors open in a different way. According to Moncayo (2010) findings of previous studies indicates that planes from the very beginning was only created in the forms which the creator had in his head there were no fixed body or shape to the aircrafts back then.

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SUB POINT 3: WHICH IS MOST PREFFERED

According to recent reports made by Smith (2011) suggest that most commercial air pilots prefer flying a Boeing because of the mere fact that priority is given to the pilot while on the other hand priority is given to computer systems over pilots in Airbus aircrafts. Staff (2017) holds the view that the cockpit design and layout of equipment also plays a major role in pilot’s choices. It is suggested that Boeing cockpits gives pilots more information and feedback, whereas in Airbus planes force pilots to look at the instruments and equipment to know exactly what is going on with the plane. Looking back at the first plane that was able to fly, pilots was required to know their surroundings and the layout from origin to destination in order to avoid accidents because the planes did not have any navigation systems at that point in time.

MAIN POINT 2: SAFETY

Needless to say, safety and security is considered one of the top priorities when it comes to the aviation sector because of the paramount importance it plays in protecting the lives of passengers and crew members. It has commonly been assumed when airplanes was first made that safety and security was placed on the back burner because of greed and selfish behaviour from the people in charge at that specific point. But after the 9/11 attack in the US safety and security all over the globe was being improved to avoid something like that every happening again. Safety measurers was implemented to which all air travellers must adhere to in order to even be allowed on an aircraft. The Transport Security Administration was responsible for creating rules and regulations and also see to it that all airports abide by them.

SUB POINT 1: 9/11 ATTACK

Engel (2018) holds the view that the 9/11 attack is considered the largest terrorist attack carried out on board passenger aircrafts. Hijackers deliberately flew aircrafts into landmarks such as the twin towers in New York City, killing and injuring thousands of people. Al-Qaeda is known world-wide for their acts of terror and their leader Osama bin Laden was the instigator for the attack pointing out how easy it was to hijack an aircraft. Safety and security at airports and on board aircrafts has profoundly changed after the attack. The Transport Security Administration (TSA) was founded and along came stricter rules and regulations. The federal government took responsibility for aviation security and most screeners at airports are federal employees states Crislip (2018). The TSA brought in new rules as to what is allowed on board aircrafts, also before boarding passengers are authorised to undergo a full body scanning. Major changes on board the aircraft include the cockpit doors they are considered impenetrable and bullet proof.

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SUB POINT 2: IDENTIFYING THE NEXT THREAT

According to Hersman (2012) in order to keep airports and aircrafts save it is everybody’s responsibility to act when they see someone or something acting suspicious because every day at least 100 000 commercial flights take off and land all around the world and transporting on average a million people and cargo worth 150 000 tonnes so a purp is bound to get through security or onto a plane eventually but by working together and being vigilant passengers can help avoid unwanted situations. The only threat the aviation industry had in the past according to Jackman (2017) was themselves because they did not have any experience what so every regarding the operations and assembling of an aircraft and was only following what they thought was right.

SUB POINT 3: CHALLENGES TARGETING SAFETY

Learmount (2009) states that there are many challenges that the aviation industry faces regarding safety. It is speculated that one of the major challenge regarding safety is the mental and emotional well-being of pilots. Looking back at Malaysia flight MH370 that was schedule to fly from Kuala Lumpur International Airport to it destination which was Beijing Capital International Airport in China went missing over the south China sea. Conspiracy theories suggests that it was the pilot’s intention to commit suicide because he suffered from mental illness, but research done by Palin (2018) suggest that another challenge regarding safety could’ve been the actual culprit. Airplane navigation system Palin believes that it could’ve been hacked by cyber terrorist resulting in numerous other mysterious. MH370 is also considered the most costly search every recorded in the aviation industry for a missing airplane.

MAIN POINT 3: CHARACTERISTICS

It is definitely no secret that the giants of the skies have transformed drastically over the years all thanks to new and modern innovations made by man-kind. Back in the early 18th and 19th century airplanes were very scares and the few that were around was considered very valuable. Passengers back then did not have the luxury to choose their airline and had to be happy with what was at their disposal. But nowadays airplanes are considered as common as dirt and airlines pop up all around the world with cheaper prices and providing a wider range of options for their customers to choose from. It is believed that customers look at a few things when deciding which airline they would prefer to fly with for example they look at things like prices, reputation of the airline, do the airlines planes look save and lastly is the plane big enough to provide sufficient room for comfort. All of these are considered the characteristics of an airliners fleet.

SUB POINT 1: WOOD TO ALLUMINIUM

When airplanes were first introduced to man-kind it is believed that the material used for the manufacture of them were what they could salvage form the environment like wood and fabric. The transition began in the late 1920’s before World War 2. According to Morris (2010) even though wood was the main source of building material for planes in the beginning it was now considered too heavy to continue building with it due to the many air accidents that occurred with planes made of wood. In Johanson (2014) findings also indicates another reason as to why wood was now considered replaceable and the reason is wood was to heavy compared to aluminium instead of the plane cruising at a certain altitude the weight of the wood made the plane drag causing gravity to pull it closer to the earth. Aluminium’s weight on the other hand is considered the most important reason why wood was replaced, not only does it make the aircraft more aerodynamic but allows people to breathe normally 30 thousand feet in the air because of pressurised cabins.

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SUB POINT 2: PROPELLER TO JET ENGINE

According to recent report made by Hallion (2009) suggests an easy explanation as to why propellers are only getting fewer and fewer as time progress is because of the higher demand of long-haul flights. It is considered common sense that planes with propellers won’t be able to offer high speed and long range in distance because it would put a lot of strain on the propellers itself. Looking back at the early 19th century when the first air accident was reported evidence claims that the propellers were over-exerted in order to travel a longer distance ever anticipated by its creators the Wright brother. But because of new developments within the aviation industry and because of more modern advances regarding the construction of airplanes brought about the age of the jet engine Cutler (2017). It is considered that the major manufacturers of the jet engine includes names such as Rolls Royce and General Electric.

SUB POINT 3: LONG – HAUL FLIGHTS VS DOMESTIC FLIGHTS

It is believed that long haul flights became very popular after trans-continental flights became a thing. According to Garfors (2014) it is believed that in the aviation industry the flight length or time is defined as the distance a plane is expected to fly. Most airliners make most of their money by operating international flights, Applebaum (2017) says that the need for traveling internationally is more, compared to the need of traveling domestically. The most common international air passengers are considered to be students studying abroad, business travellers and immigrants. Evidently past research shows that the air-vehicle form the 18th and 19th century was only intended to fly domestically because the material that was used for it was considered not suitable to take on longer flights.

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