AMERICAN POET MOST IMPORTANT WORKS
William Wordsworth • “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud”, “Tintern Abbey”
Percy Bysshe Shelley “Ode to the West Wind”, “Ozymandias”, “Music, To a Skylark”
William Blake “The Ancient of Days”, “Newton”, “The Ghost of a Flea”
Charlotte Turner Smith “The Romance of Real Life”, “Emmeline”
Emily Brontë “Wuthering Heights”
Historical/Cultural Events during Romanticism
First Railroad (1830)
The commercial railway, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, was chartered on February 28, 1827. The Tom Thumb design by Peter Cooper made a steam engine possible. Investors expected the railroad to spark competition on western trade between Baltimore and New York. The first track was only thirteen miles long but proved to positively change the country forever.
Congress of Vienna (1814) The Congress of Vienna included a meeting between ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich. The meeting lasted from November 1814 to June 1815 and was supposed to provide a long-term peace plan. Ambassadors hoped to settle issues that arose from the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars and balance each states power.
The U.S. declares war on Great Britain (1812) In 1812 the U.S. declared war on Britain due to continuous impressment. Britain refused to end its seizing of American soldiers and American ships that traded with France, The United States declared war on Britain in 1812. Britain seized ships due to the friendly trade relations the U.S. had with France – Britain’s enemy in Europe.
Sense and Sensuality Romantics enjoyed capturing the world through the five senses. They tend to focus on sound, sight, smell, and taste, maintaining detailed writing. Due to this, Romantic works tend to be sensual. As they focus on the body and how it interacts with the world, Romantics, at times, imply sex even if they aren’t directly talking about sex.
Awe of Nature Romantics constantly address nature through art and language. Unlike thinkers of the Enlightenment period, Romantics rejected rationalization of nature. They believed in celebrating nature’s simplicity and took any opportunity to highlight it.
Importance of Individualism Romantics emphasized the individual, as they believed in personal rights and freedoms. They emphasized the importance of one’s emotions, ideas, and thoughts. They considered democratic ideals when dealing with individualism.
Forms of Romanticism Writing
Gothic Style Gothic fiction is a style that has influenced romantic writing through elements such as nature, individuality, and emotion (fear or suspense). Gothic literature allows authors to explore romance, sexuality, and emotions. Often gothic style allows for the romanticism and revisiting of the past. Gothic literature is known to influence and be seen in romanticism writing.
Transcendentalism Transcendentalism is found within Romanticism as distinct forms are in both writing movements. There are three basic principles of Transcendentalism. Transcendentalists believe that God is present in all aspects of nature, that through intuition everyone can learn of God’s existence, and that nature symbolizes the spirit. They also believe that the world is good. Such tenets can be either indirectly or directly found within Romanticism writings.
Romantic Suspense Romantic suspense is one of the many subcategories of Romanticism writing. It is a novel with a story that is steered equally and consecutively by the threat of danger and the promise of a romantic ending. Through Romantic Suspense the protagonists is in danger and a love story is created while the hero or heroine confront the danger, until the suspense and romance reach a climax, leaving the mystery solved. This is a major form of Romanticism.
Origins of Romantic Writing
Gothic Style The Gothic style began in the mid 1700s with a story titled, The Castle of Otranto (in 1764), by Horace Walpole. It is considered to be the first of the Gothic fiction tales, as it incorporated many of the genres characteristics. The word Gothic originated as a term regarding the architecture and art of the period. Such art was dark and decaying. The Gothic style is thought of as a direct response to 18th century ideals of formal realism. Formal realism includes creating reality through the experience of a single character. This style ultimately influenced the Romantic period.
Transcendentalist Movement The Transcendentalism Movement is a philosophical movement that emerged in the 1820s and 1830s. In response to arguments about intellectualism and spirituality, Transcendentalism became a significant factor in the debate. It was built upon English and German Romanticism, Biblical criticism, skepticism of David Hume, and the transcendental philosophy of Immanuel Kantand German Idealism. Ultimately it plays a key role, as it is included in the Romanticism time period.
Pre-Romanticism Pre-Romanticism was a cultural movement in Europe from the 1740s until the start of the Romanticism period. This preceded the Romanticism movement, as it was a transition of public taste away from the noble, luxury, idealized lifestyle to one of a simpler and sincere expression. This new emphasis reflected the tastes of society’s middle class. The Pre-Romanticism movement allowed a smooth and understanding transition into the Romantic period.
British Renaissance and Reformation Poets 1485-1660
BRITISH POET MOST IMPORTANT WORKS
William Shakespeare “Romeo and Juliet”, “Hamlet”, “Macbeth and King Lear”
Christopher Marlowe “Tamburlaine the Great”, “The Jew of Malta”
Sir Philip Sidney “Astrophel and Stella”, “The Defense of Poesy”
Ben Jonson “Every Man In His Humour”, “The Alchemist”
John Donne “An Anatomy of the World”, “Of the Progress of the Soul”
Historical/Cultural Events during Renaissance and Reformation
Cape of Good Hope (1488)
Bartolomeu Dias was a Portuguese navigator and explorer. He led the first European expedition that rounded the Cape of Good Hope. This allowed a new sea route to Asia through the Atlantic and Indian oceans. This discovery changed sea travel forever. Dias is considered to be the greatest of Portuguese explorers during the 15th century.
The Peace of Augsburg (1555)
The Peace of Augsburg was an agreement that ended conflict between Roman Catholics and Lutherans in Germany. Established by the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire in Augsburg, each prince was given the right to decide on which religion could be practiced in his kingdoms. In addition, free and imperial cities were set up for Catholics and Lutherans.
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (1572)
During the French Wars of Religion, Hugueonts were targeted and assassinated through Catholic mob violence. St. Bartholomew’s massacre began in the night of Agusut 23–24 1572, two days after an attempted assassination of a military and political leader, Admiral Gaspard de Coligny. The massacre lasted several weeks and spread to not only urban areas but also countryside. Today an estimate of anywhere from 5″,000 to 30″,000 people were killed.
Renaissance and Reformation Attitudes
Fondness of Intelligence Prior to these movements, people thought based on their religion as most of society could not read. Classical ideas such as the scientific method were reintroduced. Through the invention of the printing press, books and writing became more common. As a result of such changes, throughout the Renaissance and Reformation, people recognized that the world could be separated from religion and obtaining knowledge became a priority.
Questioning Religions Due to corruption in the Catholic Church, a new outlook emerged as people began to question it’s teachings and wrong doings. The Protestant Reformation was a series of events that happened in the Christian Church. People saw a need to change or “reform” the church. As a result, the church separated between Catholics and various Protestant churches.
During the Renaissance the idea of a well-rounded individual was prominent. The concept of having a grasp in arts, religion, and education reflected the ideals of the “renaissance man.” Instead of focusing on a certain subject or practice, a general education in every subject was preferred.
Forms of Renaissance and Reformation Writing
Classical Greek Learning Ancient Greek philosophy influenced both Renaissance and Reformation writing. Greek Philosophy reigned in the 6th century BC, throughout the Hellenistic period, and the while Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire. Such ideas were used to understand the world in a non-religious way. The philosophy at the time dealt with a variety of subjects, such as astronomy, mathematics, political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, and biology.
Classical Roman Thought Roman philosophy also influenced both Renaissance and Reformation writing. As ancient Greece directly impacted the Roman Empire, the Roman worlds contributed to both religion and philosophy. This was apparent through the study of knowledge, the nature of truth, and moral values.
Anticlericalism Throughout reformation writing, the idea of anticlericalism is extremely evident. Anticlericalism is the opposition of religious authority in social and/or political matters. In relation, secularism coincides, as it is the idea of removing the church from public and political life. Through multiple writings these thoughts can be found as multiple writers questions the clergy and the church, basing their arguments on moral corruption, institutional issues, and disagreements between religious interpretations.
Origins of Renaissance and Reformation Writing
Greco-Roman Philosophy The Greco-Roman Period (332 BC -395 AD) contributed to the development of religion and philosophy. Throughout this time period the study of the nature of truth, knowledge, and moral values was emphasized upon studying and developing. These philosophies emphasized on objective inquiry and asking unbiased questions, which favor no outcome. These ideas were built upon and greatly impacted the Renaissance and Reformation time periods.
Anticlericalism Although it was used in Europe since the 12th and 13th century, Anticlericalism influenced the ideas of the Reformation time period. In Roman Catholicism, Anticlericalism is the opposition of the clergy due to its unpopular influence in political and social affairs. This idea was a great influence to the Reformation movement as it served as a basic principle for hundreds of works.
Due to the fact that the Dark Ages were characterized by war, famine, and disease, Humanists emerged. Humanists were people that believed that each individual had a role in the world and was responsible to provide such contributions. These ideas emerged from the ancient Greeks and Romans. These Medieval Times helped influence and transition thought to the Renaissance period.