Extraction and characterization of colourant from yellow-orange and red-pink pigments.
Calendula officinalis belongs to Asteraceae family. The plant is native to Central and Southern Europe, Western Asia and the US and is commonly known as African marigold, Zergul (Hindi), Calendula, Common Marigold, Garden Marigold, Marigold, Pot Marigold (English), Butterblume (German), Chin Chan Ts’ao (Chinese), Galbinele (Romanian) and Ringblomma (Swedish) . Calendula officinalis is used medicinally in Europe, China, US and India. It is a traditional medicinal plant with ornamental properties.It gives yellow and orange colour. The yellow and orange colour occurs because of lycopene and lutein which makes it a natural dye substance.This yellow and orange coloured flowers are used as food dye, spice, tea and in cosmetics for different purposes such as in lipstick and in creams , ointments and gels. Flower extract, flower essential oil and seed oil of C. officinalis are cosmetic ingredients and this plant act as the new source of cosmetic industry. It is also a help full dye plant for obtaining natural colours. The dried flower is in use for anti-flammation, anti-pyratic, anti-tumor and for wound heeling purpose. It also help in reduction of the wound heeling time period.It is also impressive for the management of second and third degree burns. Europe is using the calendula officinalis before the 12th century as topical anti-flammation agent. Calendula is also rich in quercetin, carotenoid , lutein, lycopene, rutin, ubi-quinone, xanthophylls and anti oxidants. Carotenoids which belongs to the group of exogenous non-enzymatic bio-active components are actually thoughtful to be provitamins as they can be converted to vitamin A. Lycopene is also another carotenoid have antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. It is also effective against prostate cancer.Whereas the extract and balsams received from this flower were used to treat ulcer, dermatological trauma, swelling and nervous orderliness. Phytochemical studies has also shown the presence of secondary metabolites such as triterpenes, flavonoids, quinone, coumarins, phenolic acids, caroteniods and anthocyanins. It also have different pharmacological activity such as anti-HIV, cytotoxic, , hepatoprotective, spasmolytic and spasmogenic, amongst others. Other activities include Anti-inflammatory and antioedematous activities, Antibacterial and antifungal activities, Anti-HIV activity, Anticancer and lymphocyte activation dual activities, Immunostimulant activity, Antioxidant activity, Hepatoprotective activity, Wound healing activity, Spasmolytic and spasmogenic dual activity, Insecticidal activity, Antiviral activity”,Genotoxic and antigenotoxic dual activities.
The strawberry genus, Fragaria, belongs to the Rosaceae, an efficiently important plant family that consider many fruit tree crops (apple, peach, cherry), herbaceous fruit plants (strawberry, brambles), ornamental plants (rose, hawthorn), and other crops used in wood manufacturing (cherry).Strawberries give reddish-orange colour. It is usually known as fragaria x ananassa Duch which is non-climatic fruit of regular human consumption. United states is the leading producer of strawberries with 12.2 % of world manufacturer preceded by Mexico, Turkey, and Spain.Whereas, strawberry sector also produce the derived product for example they use strawberry also for the production of yogurt, juices and jams. Because of strawberry’s different and unique taste and aroma it is very popular seasonal fruit that gives a lot of health benefits adding antioxidant, cardiovascular, antihypertensive, and antiproliferative eﬀects. These effects are caused by the the combination of nutrients, phytochemicals, and fibers that also makes the strawberry a functional food. It also provide us B group vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium, folic acid, carotenoids, and speciﬁc ﬂavonoids, such as pelargonidin, quercetin and catechin or the tiliroside which is a glycosidic ﬂavonoid and have anti-inﬂammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and hepatoprotective state. Strawberries have high antioxidant capacity that is because of ascorbic acid, ellagitannins and anthocyanins. Anthocyanins also give product its red colour and it also act as cyanidin and pelargonidin glycosides , and pelargonidin-3-glucoside is the important anthocyanin in the strawberry.). Ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids are other important constituent of strawberry fruit which possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, and hypoglycemic activities and contribute in reduction of blood pressure.Ellagitannins and free ellagic acid in strawberry also provide positive effects in terms of hyperglycemia and hypertension including diabetes mellitus type 2.Ellagic acid content in strawberries also make it interesting for chemo preventive effect. These components in extract of strawberry also reduce the act of alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase, angiotensin-convertimg enzyme. On regular use of strawberry”,the extract rich in bio active components also make it effective in broad range of new applications, as they are involved with prevention of various chronic pathologies, slowdown of series of aging and also the phenols in strawberry and its extrudate make it useful as an additive in foods preparation which also prohibit oxidation because of its antioxidant property. Other properties shown by consumption of strawberries are anticancer and cytotoxicity, protection against UV radiation and DNA damage, Bioavailability and metabolism of strawberry phytochemical and cardiovascular disease.
Roses are in use since a long time . They are usually used in perfumes, creams, soaps”,also as rose essential oils, in cosmetics, medical purposes, for ornament purposes and for decoration.They posses different colour from red to pink , yellow , orange and black and so on as they belong to different species. The other members of this family include R. damascena, R. muscatta, R. gallica, R. rugosa, R. indica and R. rubiginosa. . Pink rose is known as rosa centifolia.Whereas rosa centifolia is also known as cabbage rose, province rose or Rose de mai and commonly known as Gulab, Satapatri, Rosapoo, Troja. It belongs to the most important ornamental plant ‘Rosaceae’ is an erect shrub which grows 1-2 meters in height.. It is the most important specie and is in use for medicinal, biological and pharmacological purposes for its anti-inﬂammatory, antioxidant”,antibacterial”,anti tissue and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activeness.They are usually a homegrown of Asia and Middle East but not commonly grown in Pakistan. Its demand is increasing day by day because of its different properties and its use in different products. The fragrance and oil of rose can be captured through various methods. They can be extracted thorough solvent extraction, steam distillation”,water distillation and high pressure CO2 technique. Rosa centifolia contain carboxylic acid, terpene, myrcene and vitamin c and many other chemical constituent like Phenyl ethanol (43%), Geranyl acetate (15.6%), Geraniol (10.5%), Benzaldehyde (1.5%), and also contains tannins, saccharine matter, mineral salts, salt of mallic acid, pectin, riboflavin, sugars, purgative glycosides (multiflorin A& B). Traditionally these chemical constituent are reported to function in Hepatopathy, inflammation, intestinal ulcers, asthma, cough, diarrhoea, bacterial infection, fever, insomnia, and headache. And they are also used as cardio protective, local aesthetic, anti depressant, antioxidant, vasoconstricting agent. The antioxidant property is due to presence of tannins, and other chemical factor in it. Even rose leaves were in use in ancient chinease medicines and in medieval European apothecaries to cure common cold and different inflammatory diseases.Rose petals are also in use for its mild anti viral and bactericidal activities. Roses have also influenced the civilization aesthetically, economically, medically, sacredly, and spiritually as humans can sense and acknowledge the aroma. This plant is not explored much till now, but traditionally it is used in treatment of diabetes , conjunctivitis , in aroma therapy.
Turmeric is a dried, ground rhizomes of “curcuma longa L”, which belongs to the family of Zingiberaceae, usually found in south asia. Other countries that produce turmeric involves Pakistan, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Burma and Taiwan. It is commonly known as haldi in pakistan and haldi or haridra in India, in tamil as“Manjal” and its powder as Manjal Thool , in japan as “ukon”, in arabic as “ kurkum”, in china as “Watgam” and in indonesia as “Kunyit”. In india it is also called as “Indian saffron”because it is also used as a substitute for saffron spice. It is known for its golden yellow colour. It is widely and commonly used in spices, food preservatives, dye and in cosmetics. Turmeric is in use since ancient times for its medicinal properties.In many religions it is also used as a symbol of safety and protection. Aryan culture gives turmeric very much importance because they consider its yellow orange colour as a ray of sunlight which give protective properties. Whereas Hindus use it to dye the clothes that they use in marriage rituals to keep the person safe from any harm i:e diseases and infections. Himalayans use it to treat skin problems as a tonic, for inflammation and cough problems and also for different external and internal injuries.It gives its colour because of curcumin [l”,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-l”,6-heptadiene-3″,5-dione] (I) and two related minor curcuminoids, demethoxycurcumin (II) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (III). Curcuminoids are the phenolic components that are widely present in turmeric. It is insoluble in water and ether but it can be dissolved in ethanol and glacial acetic acid. Turmeric have many pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, antibacterial, anti-fungal, analgesic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, anti-diabetes, anti-Alzheimer’s disease. Other biological properties found in turmeric are anti-HIV, anti-carcinogenic, anticancer”,anti-venom, anti-tumor. It also helps in purifying blood and clear our skin colour “,heals wound, stop liver obstruction and that’s how the provide a lot of health benefits to us. It also include polyphenols and flavonoids as bioactive components. It also contain fat (5.1%), protein (6.3%), carbohydrates (69.4%), minerals(3.5%) and moisture (13.1%).
Whereas rhizomes of turmeric gives essential oil through steam distillation contains sabinene (0.6%), borneol (0.5%), a-phellandrene (1%) cineol (1%), sesquiterpines (53%), zingiberene (25%) and curcumin (diferuloylmethane) (3–4%). Turmeric also consists of volatile and non volatile components. Volatile ones contain turmerone, zingiberene, curlone and arturmerone, and non volatile contains the curcuminoids. Because of all theses beneficial properties turmeric is used on daily basis as a dye and for food purpose.
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