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Government college university faisalabad

Government college university Faisalabad

Internship report


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Rameen Ishfaq

BS(Hons) Physiology


8th semester

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[image: Government_College_University_Logo]

Department of physiology

Government college university Faisalabad

(SESSION 2015-2019)


It is certified that internship work in this report has been carried out and observed by Rameen Ishfaq D/O Muhammad Ishfaq, registration No.2015-GCUF-18101 in duration from 1-Feb-2019 to 15-May-2019, Roll #18101 under my supervision, as per requirement of her BS (Hons) Physiology as a student of Government College University, Faisalabad.


Sir Imtaiz Mustafa

Government college university”,Faisalabad


Dr. Haseeb Anwaar

Head of Department of Physiology

Govt.College University, Faisalabad


Dr.Ghulam Hussain

Assistant Professor

Govt.College University, Faisalabad


Special thanks to Allah ALMIGHTLY

“I would like to dedicate my work with love and respect to my perfect mentor Hazrat Muhammad صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ و سلم whose life is light for me in darkness and hopeless situations.

To my mother

Who taught me how to carry and manage life and trust in Allah

To Dr.Haseeb Anwar and Dr.Ghulam Hussien

Who has been a constant source of motivation, hard working and knowledge

sir Usman Mehmood

He inreased my confidence and without his early mentoring, enthusiiasm and coaching none of would be happened.”

‘’O mankind! If ye have a doubt about the recreation(consider) that We created you out of dust, then outof sperm, then out of a leech-like clot, then out of achewed-like lump of flesh, formed and unformed, inorder that We may manifest (our power) to you; andWe cause whom We will to rest in the wombs for anappointed term.”

(The Holy Quran, 22: 5).

Government college university Faislabad

History “,vision and mission of GCUF

Government College University, Faisalabad has risen as the main focus of learning and research in a limited capacity to focus time. The University with its dynamic personnel and inventive prospectuses have turned into an impetus of scholarly, social and modern change. It obliges the various needs of society by granting training in practically all the real fields of learning.

[image: Government-college-faisalabald]

The Government College University’s voyage began as a grade school in 1897 in the present structure of Govt. School for Women, Karkhana Bazar, Faisalabad. It was elevated to High School and Intermediate College in 1905 and 1924 separately. It was raised to the degree level in 1933 and postgraduate controls were presented in 1963. The long adventure that began with the unassuming start achieved its peak when it was conceded the status of University in October 2002.

The Government College University, Faisalabad has a long history of brilliance and refinement as an organization. Prestigious researchers and prominent identities have served this establishment in different limits at different phases of its history. It has delivered remarkable workforce who have earned extraordinary acclaim for themselves as well as for the country.

The lights like Mr Abdul Hameed, Mr W.H.F. Armstrong, Mr Lala Chattan Annand, Mr Hashmat Khan, Mr Taj Khyal, Mr Namdar Khan, Mr Karamat Hussain Jafari, Mr Mukhtar Mahmood Qureshi, Dr Asif Iqbal Khan and Dr Arif Zaidi have served this establishment.

The college is arranged at the Jhang Road not a long way from the chronicled Clock Tower. The fundamental grounds is spread on 37 sections of land and the development of new grounds has been begun a territory of 200 sections of land some 3-4 kilometres from the primary grounds at Jhang Road.

The University is putting forth instructive degrees in various controls. The University is a centre of instructive, social and social exercises with a nearby contact with industry.

Government College University has set out on another period of history. We are occupied in the readiness of an advancement plan both as far as training just as physical improvement. The sign of the University’s instructive reasoning is the remaking of human idea in the entirety of its features on the establishment of our social, good and religious qualities. Whatever the progressions that we need to make, we guarantee our well-wishers that they would be grounded in the welfare both of our understudies and staff.

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Our Mission is to give understudies an empowering domain where discourse is energized and thoughts imagined. We will give the scholarly and physical framework that will hold understudies to the most elevated good and moral qualities. We will accomplish these objectives with the collaboration of both open and private parts just as the workforce and understudies of GCUF.


The’s University will probably be among the main 1000 best colleges on the planet and among the best 3 colleges in Pakistan continuously 2020. The University will get Engineering and Medical training its space too notwithstanding fabricate a best in class Technology Park – First in a sort in Pakistan.

VisionVision and mission of physiology department

It’s as of late settled and similarly uncommon office in different colleges of the nation, so BS Physiology is a developing proficient degree which needs tremendous focus, diligent work just as the pace of development as an expert profession. What’s more, the Bureau of Physiology is thusly settled with the vision of giving the most extreme yield in educating and research keeping in view the base accessible assets. To give exclusive requirement training and research exercises strive for undergrad and postgraduate understudies to the car up the universal standards. The utilization of electronic media will be urged to encourage the understudies with the goal that learning capacities could be additionally improved. Study visits in the national famous research just as instructing establishment will be gotten ready for the solid introduction of students. Target based advancement plans with a recommended time allotment will be set to get the required advancement in constrained time. Along with scholastics, the Physiologist has a tremendous job in the general wellbeing administrations including diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, wellbeing focuses, nourishment industry, Reagents, expository packs, instruments producers. Understudies will be urged to effectively take an interest in the extracurricular exercises of the University, which will be a solid exercise to prepare their psychological capacities.


The Department of Physiology was set up with the mean to give innovative hypothetical and commonsense learning/abilities to the understudies through quality instructing and research. However much is in real life, the division is as yet endeavouring to secure most recent lab gear to qualify understudies at universal norms.


Entry level position preparing program gives an opportunity to understudies to make themselves Familiar with the genuine expert condition. Working in the physiological research facility reflects practically all the viable work that is found out amid hypothetical courses.

This report records the work done amid the temporary position at department of physiology GCUF.This report covers every one of the exercises that have added to accomplish various expressed objectives. In the accompanying parts the report first will give a review of the errands finished amid the time of the temporary job with specialized subtleties. At that point the outcomes got will be talked about what’s more, broke down.


Above all else, I might want to offer my most profound thanks to Almighty Allah for giving me quality and self-control to finish this report inside planned time.

I am grateful to DR.Haseeb Anwar Head of Department of Physiology, government college university Faisalabad for allowing me the chance to do my temporary job at his exceptionally regarded association.

I am likewise thankful to DR. Ghulam Hussien who prepared his

understudies with information and made them ready to do entry-level position in such significant, regarded and proficient foundation.

I am appreciative and gratefull to the Sir Imtaiz Mustafa who guides me each and every aspect related to all work done in labs.

What’s more, MadamHumaira and Madam Shumaila for their important direction, recommendations, exhortation and support.

I am very appreciative to every one of the general population working in the research facility for their gathering and benevolence and for giving me data and important direction amid the time of the temporary job.

Because of them, my time in physiology labs were an advancing knowledge and it was the genuine delight to work with them.

Rameen Ishfaq

Table of contents

Unit#1 Introduction

· Defination of physiology?

· Fast facts of physiology

· What is physology

· history

· Natural frameworks

· branches

Unit#2 Lab rules and ethics

· Introduction

· Lab rules

Unit#3 Microscopy

· Introduction

· Types of microscope

· What is compound microscope

· Parts of microscope

· Basics of compound microscope

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Unit#4 Histopathology

· Introduction and defination

· Common defination in histopathology

· Types of histopathological tissue

· Histological Techniques

Unit#4 Spectrophotometry

· Introduction





· Arylastrase

· paraooxonase

Unit#5 Plant extraction

· Introduction

· Making of plant solutions

· Filtration

· Evapouration

· Incubation

· Measurement of plant extrats

· Phytochemical analysis

Unit#6 Disscussion



I am convinced that an important stage of human thought will have been reached when the physiological and the psychological, the objective and the subjective, are actually united, when the tormenting conflicts or contradictions between my consciousness and my body will have been factually resolved or discarded.

— Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

Physiology of the Higher Nervous Activity (1932), 93-4.

Defination of Physiology

Physiology is the branch of biology deales with investigation of typical function and activites inside living animals. It is a sub-area of science, covering a scope of points that incorporate organs, life systems, cells, natural mixes, and how they all cooperate to make life conceivable.

From old hypotheses to sub-atomic lab systems, physiological research has molded our comprehension of the parts of our body, how they convey, and how they keep us alive.

Fast facts on physiology

Here are some key focuses on physiology. More detail and supporting data is in the primary article.

· Physiology can be viewed as an investigation of the capacities and procedures that make the life.

· The investigation of physiology can be followed back to no less than 420 BC.

· The investigation of physiology is part of numerous orders covering points as various as exercise, advancement, and barrier.

What is physiology?

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The investigation of physiology is, it might be said, the investigation of life. It makes inquiries about the inner operations of life forms and how they associate with their general surroundings.

Physiology tests how organs and frameworks inside the bodywork, how they convey, and how they consolidate their endeavours to make conditions ideal for survival.

Human physiology, explicitly, is frequently isolated into subcategories; these themes spread a huge measure of data.

Scientists in the field can concentrate on anything from minute organelles in cell physiology up to all the more wide-going subjects, for example, ecophysiology, which takes a gander at entire life forms and how they adjust to situations.

The most applicable arm of physiological research to Medical News Today is connected human physiology; this field examines natural frameworks at the dimension of the cell, organ, framework, life structures, living being, and wherever in the middle.

In this article, we will visit a portion of the subsections of physiology, building up a short outline of this enormous subject. Right off the bat, we will go through a short history of physiology.

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[Bust of Hippocrates]

Hippocrates is considered by numerous individuals to be the “father of drug.”

The investigation of physiology follows its underlying foundations back to old India and Egypt.

As a therapeutic control, it returns at any rate similar to the season of Hippocrates, the renowned “father of drug” – around 420 BC.

Hippocrates authored the hypothesis of the four humours, expressing that the body contains four unmistakable organic liquids: dark bile, mucus, blood, and yellow bile. Any unsettling influence in their proportions, as the hypothesis goes, causes sick wellbeing.

Claudius Galenus (c.130-200 AD), otherwise called Galen, altered Hippocrates’ hypothesis and was the first to utilize experimentation to determine data about the frameworks of the body. He is broadly alluded to as the originator of trial physiology.

It was Jean Fernel (1497-1558), a French doctor, who originally presented the expression “physiology”,” from Ancient Greek, signifying “investigation of nature, starting points.”

Fernel was likewise the first to portray the spinal channel (the space in the spine where the spinal rope goes through). He has a cavity on the moon named after him for his endeavours – it is called Fernelius.

Another jump forward in physiological learning accompanied the distribution of William Harvey’s book titled An Anatomical Dissertation Upon the Movement of the Heart and Blood in Animals in 1628.

Harvey was the first to depict fundamental flow and blood’s adventure through the cerebrum and body, moved by the heart.

Maybe shockingly, much restorative practice depended on the four humours until well into the 1800s (phlebotomy, for example). In 1838, a move in thought happened when the cell hypothesis of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann landed on the scene, conjecturing that the body was comprised of little individual cells.

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From here on in, the field of physiology opened up, and the advance was made rapidly:

Joseph Lister, 1858 – at first contemplated coagulation and irritation following damage, he proceeded to find and use lifesaving sterilizers.

Ivan Pavlov, 1891 – adapted physiological reactions in canines.

August Krogh, 1910 – won the Nobel Prize for finding how bloodstream is managed in vessels.

Andrew Huxley and Alan Hodgkin, 1952 – found the ionic instrument by which nerve driving forces are transmitted.

Andrew Huxley and Hugh Huxley, 1954 – made advances in the investigation of muscles with the disclosure of sliding fibres in skeletal muscle.

Natural frameworks

The real frameworks canvassed in the investigation of human physiology are as per the following:

Circulatory framework – including the heart, the veins, properties of the blood, and how course works in affliction and wellbeing.

Stomach related/excretory framework – graphing the development of solids from the mouth to the butt; this incorporates investigation of the spleen, liver, and pancreas, the change of sustenance into fuel and its last exit from the body.

Endocrine framework – the investigation of endocrine hormones that convey motions all through the living being, helping it to react in the show. The important endocrine organs – the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, parathyroids, and gonads – are a noteworthy centre, yet about all organs discharge endocrine hormones.

Insusceptible framework – the body’s regular resistance framework is contained white platelets, the thymus, and lymph frameworks. A mind-boggling exhibit of receptors and atoms join to shield the host from assaults by pathogens. Atoms, for example, antibodies and cytokines include vigorously.

Integumentary framework – the skin, hair, nails, sweat organs, and sebaceous organs (emitting a sleek or waxy substance).

Musculoskeletal framework – the skeleton and muscles, ligaments, tendons, and ligament. Bone marrow – where red platelets are made – and how bones store calcium and phosphate are incorporated.

Sensory system – the focal sensory system (mind and spinal string) and the fringe sensory system. Investigation of the sensory system incorporates examination into the faculties, memory, feeling, development, and thought.

Renal/urinary framework – including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, this framework expels water from the blood, produces pee, and diverts squander.

Conceptive framework – comprising of the gonads and the sex organs. Investigation of this framework additionally incorporates researching the manner in which a hatchling is made and supported for 9 months.

Respiratory framework – comprising of the nose, nasopharynx, trachea, and lungs. This framework gets oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and water.


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Barrier physiology researches nature’s normal guarded responses.

There are an extraordinary number of controls that utilization the word physiology in their title. The following are a few models:

Cell physiology – concentrating the manner in which cells work and interface; cell physiology generally focuses on film transport and neuron transmission.

Frameworks physiology – this spotlights on the computational and numerical displaying of complex natural frameworks. It endeavors to portray the manner in which singular cells or segments of a framework merge to react in general. They frequently research metabolic systems and cell flagging.

Developmental physiology – concentrating the way frameworks, or parts of frameworks, have adjusted and changed over numerous ages. Research points spread a ton of ground including the job of conduct in development, sexual choice, and physiological changes in connection to geographic variety.

Guard physiology – changes that happen as a response to a potential risk, for example, arrangement for the battle or-flight reaction.

Exercise physiology – as the name recommends, this is the investigation of the physiology of physical exercise. This incorporates investigation into bioenergetics, natural chemistry, cardiopulmonary capacity, biomechanics, haematology, skeletal muscle physiology, neuroendocrine capacity, and sensory system work.

The points referenced above are only a little choice of accessible physiologies. The field of physiology is as basic as it is tremendous.

Physiology or life structures?

Life structures are firmly identified with physiology. Life systems allude to the investigation of the structure of body parts, however physiology centres around how these parts work and identify with one another.


Lab ethics and rules

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