In recent years, psychologists, sociologists and neurophysiologists have received many new data on human behavior. Sometimes, of course, the results of the research are not surprising, but now they are confirmed experimentally. We have gathered the conclusions of a number of studies, in brackets – articles that describe the experiments themselves. Of course, not all people behave this way. However, when interacting with others, general trends should be taken into account.
People tend to commit immorality or do not perform someone’s request for help if they do not need to make an effort or do not have to give up the person directly.
However, more people behave “as they should” if they have to make a moral decision on the sight of someone. Directly asking for help, donations or collecting signatures are rejected less often. (“Why do people behave badly?”)
In half of the cases, people are deceiving to obtain some kind of resource – from something material to consideration, respect, or a higher status.
Lying requires a lot of mental effort. At the same time, man has to lie in his head – to speak it, and the truth – to hide it. As a result, he makes more simple sentences and worse copes with tasks on wit. (“The evolution and psychology of self-deception”)
When people are watching, they behave better. And the illusion of observation works, too. It was enough to hang up eye photographs in the self-service dining room, so that more people would have to clean their dishes. (“How the illusion of being seen can make you a better person”)
At the same time behavior affects morality (yes). People who are lying, deceiving someone or committing another immoral act, then evaluate in a different way what is good and what is bad. (“The science of why we cheat”)
The desire to appear moral often leads not to moral behavior, but to more sophisticated ways to justify immoral actions. (“I read the Playboy for the Articles: Justifying and rationalizing the questionable preferences”)
Moral, noble deeds (even such as the conscious purchase of goods made without harm to nature) often act as an indulgence. After that, in conflict situations, people are doing less morally – as if they have already performed their share of good deeds on this day. (Behind the (leafy) curtain)
Perception of people
The traits of a person of an unfamiliar person can be determined precisely by the photograph. Especially if a person is in a picture in a natural position and environment. In this case, it is easier and more accurately determine the personality traits of men. The appearance of women is more prone to social standards. (“Personality traits can be accurately judged by photo”)
An attractive, honest look can easily be misleading. People tend to trust the appearance more than sincerity. Even professionals were considered honest liars with sincere manners in 86% of cases. (“Looks can kill – you better judge”)
Appearance plays a huge role even in the voting and the choice of politicians. Voters conclude on the competence of politicians of maturity and physical attractiveness. Of course, unconsciously. (“On the faceofit, voting’s superficial”)
At the same time, the personality traits influence the perception of external attractiveness. After people found negative information about those who were considered beautiful, their thoughts changed. (“Personality traits perceived attractiveness”)
The hierarchy is so important to a person that her understanding has been laid down since childhood. Babies understand that stronger individuals overcome the weaker, and express surprise when they see the opposite. (“Babies understand that bigger beasts are usually the top pecking order”)
More successful and rich are considered more reasonable, wise, etc., and vice versa. And often people tend to think that those who succeeded and those who fell in love suffered it. (“Impossible accident”, Mladinov)
Relationships with others
People tend to humiliate others when they are not self-confident. Those who were told that they had poorly passed the IQ test expressed more national and religious bias than those who reported high results.
At the same time, people are sincerely convinced that their negative opinion about others is sincerely and has nothing to do with their lowered opinion about themselves. The humiliation of others helps restore self-esteem. (“The evolution and psychology of self-deception”)
It is possible that the help to other people is connected with an indirect personal interest. Scientists call it “indirect reciprocity.” People tend to help those who themselves are considered “good” people, helping others. Therefore, the reputation of a good person is the key to future support. (“Using mathematic stoidentify good guys”)
The happier is not the one who has a lot of money, but the one who has more than a neighbor. Partly this is also based on dissatisfaction with big money. People are constantly comparing themselves with their neighbors. Having become rich, they begin to rotate in new circles, where people have more money, and it is not easy to climb over others. (“In captivity naive benefit”)
Anger and aggression
People with high levels of testosterone enjoy the anger of others. (Hight estrogenic people feel rewarded by others’ anger)
Anger enhances people’s desire for possession. People are struggling to get an object that they associate with angry individuals. Previously, this was considered only as a property of positive emotions. (Anger makes people want more things)
Angry women are perceived as men. Very strong subconscious associations of anger with men and happiness with women. So strong that can affect the definition of a person’s gender – of course, only with a quick look. (“Are angry women more like men?”)
A spoon of sugar reduces aggression. To suppress aggressive impulses you need self-control, and self-control requires energy. Glucose delivers this energy to the brain. People who drank lemonade with sugar in a few minutes responded less aggressively to a restless stranger than people who drank lemonade with a sugar substitute. (“A spoonful of sugar helps the rage go down”)
Gather information and make decisions
Usually people search for the desired information and skip the unwanted ones. Of course, it is impossible to accurately predict where you will meet. At the same time, one can choose the source in which the information that a person is ready to accept are certain newspapers, authors, etc. (Thehappinesshypothesis by JonathanHeidt).
However, people can perceive unwanted information if they feel confident and calm. (“The evolution and psychology of self-deception”).
The more difficult the decision to take, the more people are inclined to leave everything as it is. (“Exploring status quobiasin human brain”).
If the store is very big choice and people can not immediately determine which of the goods is better – they will go without a purchase. (“Consumers stop shopping as a number of options increases”).
When people feel that they do not control what is happening, they tend to see non-existent regularities in unrelated pictures and believe in conspiracy theories.
Proceeding from this, the percentage of believers in the country reliably assumes the level of safety of existence (health, life support, the ability to make a living, etc.) (“The evolution and psychology of self-deception”).
People are sorry for the quick decisions they make, even if their results are satisfied. In this case, it is important not the actual time taken for the decision. It is important that a person feels that there was enough time. (Quick decisions createre gret).
But the washing of hands significantly reduces the doubts about the correctness of the decision. (“Washing Away Postdecisional Dissonance”).
The strangeness of our brain
The behavior of people is affected by bodily sensations. For example, there is a stable association between the sense of gravity and “importance”, “seriousness”, “weight”. People evaluated a person as more serious and stable if his resume was filed in a hard folder, and vice versa.
Similarly, the feeling of rigidity and hardness makes people inflexible. Sitting on hard chairs were unbreakable in the negotiations.
A feeling of rough surface causes people a sense of difficulty in relationships between people, and the cold is closely linked to the feeling of loneliness. (Incidental haptic sensations affect social judgments and decisions).
The administrative boundaries indicated on the maps give people a psychological sense of security. If a natural disaster (storm, forest fires, etc.) occurs in another area, and even more so in another country, people tend to be less serious about this, even if the area is very close. Therefore, when declaring the danger is better to talk about the immediate distance to the site of a natural disaster. (“Borderbias: risk mapping and safety”).
The desire to buy and accumulate material goods – often a consequence of unlucky childhood. (“Consumeris man dits discontents”)
Not all risks are perceived the same way. One and the same person can fearlessly jump with a parachute, but be afraid to deny the boss. Or to train tigers, but to be ashamed to meet a pretty woman. (“In Not Razor create dequal”).
With age, healthy people treat any event more positively. Perhaps because the weaker immune system of the elderly is more difficult to cope with the effects of negative emotions.
Primates absorb information better if it comes from the female. This may provide an evolutionary advantage, since males often leave the group, finding other partners, and take on learned skills, while females with cubs remain. Females form the social core of a group that has a higher social status than males, as well as a large amount of knowledge about nutritional resources in the area of residence of the group. (“Dominant female is the best teacher”).