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Marketing research project

MARKETING RESEARCH PROJECT

SUBMITTED BY: CHANDAN

BACHELOR OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES

KESHAV MAHAVIDYALAYA

UNIVERSITY OF DELHI (DU)

ROLL NO – 5066

ANALYSIS OF CHANGING TRENDS AND READER PREFERENCES AMONG PRINTED BOOKS AND

E-BOOKS

Contents

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 4

DECLARATION 5

CERTIFICATE 6

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7

INTRODUCTION 8

LITERATURE RIVEW 9

METHODOLOGY AND DETAILS OF RESEARCH-BASED SURVEY 10

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 10

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 11

RESULTS AND FINDINGS OF SURVEY 15

PROFILE OF RESPONDANTS 15

QUESTION WISE ANALYSIS 17

UNIVARIATE 17

Bivariate 35

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to my project guides Dr.Amanjot Sachdeva and Ms. Nomita Sharma for introducing me to the field of ‘Marketing Research’ and for the valuable guidance and support throughout the course of my project. In particular, they exposed me to the challenging problems of the field through rigorous discussions and timely suggestions.

I also feel a great pleasure and sense of gratitude in thanking Keshav Mahavidyalaya, Delhi University for providing me a platform for exposure, learning and completing my project successfully on time.

I am thankful to all the people who answered my questions willingly and participated in my research, giving me their precious and valuable time.

And last but not the least, I would like to express deep gratitude to my parents and classmates for instilling in me strong moral values and sense of purpose and whose love and support makes this project see the light of the day.

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this Project Report titled “Analysis of changing trends and reader preferences among printed books and e-books” submitted to the Department of Management Studies, Keshav Mahavidyalaya (Delhi University) is a record of original work done by me under the guidance of Ms. Amanjot Sachdeva.

The information and data given in the report is authentic to the best of my knowledge.

This Project Report is not submitted to any other university or institution for the award of any degree, diploma or fellowship or published any time before.

– CHANDAN

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled “Analysis of changing trends and reader preferences among paperback and electronic modes of reading” submitted by Ms. Chandan, student of Bachelors of Management Studies (BMS) – Keshav Mahavidyalaya (University of Delhi) is a record of work done under my supervision.

This is also to certify that this report is an original product submitted as a part of the curriculum and no unfair means like copying have been used for its completion. All references have been duly acknowledged.

Ms. Amanjot Sachdeva

Faculty

(Department of Management Studies)

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I chose the topic to study changing trends and reading preferences of readers among printed books and e-books, because I found it really interesting that how irrelevant it is considered to be thought upon yet how important reading is, to mankind. Reading develops your imagination. Books are your best friend is rightly said as reading helps build up your confidence and uplifts your mood. Once you start reading, you experience a whole new world. I, myself am an avid reader and a hardcore fan of the aesthetic appeal of the printed books. But the recent developments in e-reading like Kindle, Nook, iBooks, made me wonder whether people still like to read printed books, or their preferences have changed from printed books to e-books. A couple years ago, I would never have preferred e-books over printed books, but with time, I ended up exploring a few of the many benefits of e-books. So, this study aims at knowing whether this shift from traditional book reading to e-reading is a generally picked idea among the university or not.

INTRODUCTION

Reading for pleasure means any reading that is primarily for enjoyment. It encompasses a wide range of genres and publications and includes both fiction and non-fiction. People read through different mediums, like, printed books, or e-books.

Technology and mobility have influenced every step of consumer’s life, including the way they read books. Book readers have started to change their reading habits, opting for different types of formats of books, such as e-books. An e-book, also known as an electronic or digital book, is a digitally released version of a book, often consisting of text and images and available on electronic devices, such as specifically designed e-book readers.

These books are readable on the electronic devices such as computer, mobile phone and tablets. Thus, the rising adoption of these smart devices is the major factor driving the global demand for e-books.

LITERATURE RIVEW

With electronic books becoming widespread, various studies have begun to be carried out about reading habits, digital catalogs, and e-book device. A vast majority of these studies have focused on university students. This is foregone conclusion considering that ebooks became widespread at first in academic libraries for emergence of electronic journals (Mischo, Norman, Shelburne, and Schlembach, 2007; Shelburne, 2009). In those studies, the main discussion topics have been the ratio of preference in comparison to printed materials (Nicholas, Rowlands, Clark, Huntington, Jamali, and Olle’, 2008).

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As manifested by a large-scale survey in UK with the participation of 120 universities (Nicholas, Rowlands, Clark, Huntington, Jamali, & Olle´, 2008) acceptance of e-book use among students is by the ratio of 62%. In a different large-scale survey (N=1547) covering the acceptance and use of e-book 57% of students were found to have used e-books. The remainder of students who provided a negative answer on e-book use has been basically the ones who are not aware of the availability of this service at university library (Shelburne, 2009). The research has also demonstrated that students view easy-access advantage of e-book as its primary benefit. A different research (Zhang & Beckman, 2011) in support of these surveys (N=1450) has likewise presented that the use of e-book is rather common with a ratio of 53% amongst university students. Percentages of e-book usage can be interpreted in different ways in different studies. For example in a study in which the percentage of the non-users of e-books has been 62%, it was concluded that e-books is not preferred to printed material (Cassidy, Martinez, & Shen, 2012). However in the same study, it was concluded that advantages of electronic style is more valuable though it is not preferred. In this study it was also determined that researchers are not aware of the available electronic resources in the libraries on their own field of study

Another study (Annand, 2008) probing into the preference of e-books over printed resources and its effect on learning (N=109) has unraveled that students generally prefer printed materials and as regards learning there is no significant differences between two formats. A different study (Woody, Daniel, & Baker, 2010) parallel to the findings of previous research has also provided the conclusion that as course material, students prefer printed textbook rather than e- book (N= 91). In another study (N=538), grades of university students from a course and perceived learning score were compared according to preference of electronic book or printed resource within the scope of a course. Although there is not a significant difference in the sense of grades as a result of study, perceived learning scores of students who prefer e-book was higher (Szapkiw, Courduff, Carter, & Bennett, 2013).

Slater (2009) conducted a study in the university library of Oakland University that compared the circulation of e-books between the printed materials and the e-books in the sources of net Library and Safari. One of the most outstanding findings of the study was that while the preferences of the users in the fields of science/technology were leaning towards e-book format, the user preferences on the fields of humanities were in the direction of printed materials.

METHODOLOGY AND DETAILS OF RESEARCH-BASED SURVEY

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The basic objective of carrying out this research is to find out the “changing trends and reader preferences among paperback and electronic modes of reading”

The study aims to achieve the following objectives:

• To analyze the reading habits of college students.

• To find out which mode of reading do they prefer, paperback or e-reading.

• To find out what are the factors affecting reader’s preference between printed books and e-books.

• To know about the various platforms readers use for electronic modes of reading.

• To analyze gender specific preference of the two modes of reading.

• To find out whether price is a factor affecting the choice of mode of reading or maybe the quantum of reading that takes place.

• To do this analysis for college students of age 18-24 years.

• To do this analysis for urban population.

• To find out the significance of factors like tangibility, portability, storage, etc., in selecting the mode of reading.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research project has a specified framework for collecting the data in an effective manner. Such framework is called “Research Design”. This research process which was followed during this project includes the following steps:

Defining Research Objectives:

The objectives as stated above include:

 To analyse the reading habits of college students.

 To know about the various sources that readers tap for reading material.

 To find out which mode of reading do they prefer, paperback or e-reading.

 To find out what are the factors affecting their choice.

Scope of the study:

The study mainly deals with changing trends and reader preferences among paperback and electronic modes of reading. The study aims at young population around age group of 18-24. The study is conducted among college students of Delhi.

Sampling Plan:

Method of Sampling:

Sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. The main advantages of sampling are lower cost, fast data collection and since the data set is smaller it is possible to ensure homogeneity and to improve the accuracy and quality of the data.

There are two types of sampling techniques used for the research purpose:

1. Probability Sampling techniques

2. Non-Probability Sampling techniques.

To carry out this study, Non-probability sampling technique is used. Under the non-probability, we have used convenience and judgmental sampling. In other words, questionnaires were shot to respondents who were intelligently guessed to be good enough representatives of their respective age groups.

Sample Size: Sample size for the research is fixed to 100 people.

The sampling has been done using Online Google Forms.

Data Collection:

This report is based on primary as well secondary data, however primary data collection was given more importance since it is overhearing factor in attitude studies. One of the most important users of research methodology is that it helps in identifying the problem, collecting, analyzing the required information data and providing an alternative solution to the problem. It also helps in collecting the vital information that helps in better decision making both day to day decision and critical ones. For data collection, online Google Forms (cost effective) were sent to the respondents mainly focusing on age group of 18-24.

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Primary data is collected through questionnaire, search and research through online survey using Google documents. Secondary data is being search sites like magazines, newspapers, journals, websites and the data has been collected mainly through internet and books.

Data Analysis:

The data collected is analyzed in the form of tables, percentages, numerical forms, bar charts, and pie charts. Besides using Google Documents, Ms-Excel and SPSS are also used extensively in analyzing the data.

• UNIVARIATE – Frequency Table – A statistical record of how often each value in a set of data occurs. A frequency table is used to summarize categorical, nominal, and ordinal data.

• BIVARIATE – Chi-Square test – A statistical method assessing the goodness of fit between a set of observed values and those expected theoretically.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

RESULTS AND FINDINGS OF SURVEY

PROFILE OF RESPONDANTS

AGE COMPOSITION

Age

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 18-20 86 86.0 86.0 86.0

21-23 10 10.0 10.0 96.0

23 or above 4 4.0 4.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

GENDER DISTRIBUTION

Gender

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid Female 51 51.0 51.0 51.0

Male 49 49.0 49.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

QUESTION WISE ANALYSIS

UNIVARIATE

Q.1 How many hours per day do you typically read (e-book or printed book)?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 0-1 41 41.0 41.0 41.0

3 or more 16 16.0 16.0 57.0

43468 33 33.0 33.0 90.0

I don’t read. 10 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

Q.2 In general, which do you prefer to read for extended periods of time?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid Ebooks 20 20.0 20.0 20.0

Printed Books 80 80.0 80.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

Q.3 How many books have you purchased in the last 12 months?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 0 9 9.0 9.0 9.0

1 7 7.0 7.0 16.0

11 or more 11 11.0 11.0 27.0

43501 53 53.0 53.0 80.0

43626 20 20.0 20.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

Q.4 Have you purchased an Ebook or paperback within the past 12 months

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid No, I haven’t purchased any books. 23 23.0 23.0 23.0

Yes, I have purchased both ebooks and printed books. 21 21.0 21.0 44.0

Yes, I have purchased only ebooks. 4 4.0 4.0 48.0

Yes, I have purchased only printed books. 52 52.0 52.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

Q.5 Which platform have you used to read your e-books?

FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

PDF ON THE MOBILE

PDF ON THE LAPTOP/ PC

IPAD

NOOK

KINDLE

OTHER

NA

66

30

2

3

18

13

16

66%

30%

2%

3%

18%

13%

16%

TOTAL 100 100%

Q.6 Why do you prefer Ebooks over printed books? (1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest)

PORTABILITY

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 17 17.0 17.0 17.0

2 10 10.0 10.0 27.0

3 15 15.0 15.0 42.0

4 20 20.0 20.0 62.0

5 38 38.0 38.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

STORAGE

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 24 24.0 24.0 24.0

2 11 11.0 11.0 35.0

3 13 13.0 13.0 48.0

4 31 31.0 31.0 79.0

5 21 21.0 21.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

EASE OF PURCHASE

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 22 22.0 22.0 22.0

2 14 14.0 14.0 36.0

3 22 22.0 22.0 58.0

4 20 20.0 20.0 78.0

5 22 22.0 22.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 17 17.0 17.0 17.0

2 17 17.0 17.0 34.0

3 17 17.0 17.0 51.0

4 18 18.0 18.0 69.0

5 31 31.0 31.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

PRICE

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 21 21.0 21.0 21.0

2 17 17.0 17.0 38.0

3 14 14.0 14.0 52.0

4 25 25.0 25.0 77.0

5 23 23.0 23.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

Q.7 Why do you prefer Printed books over ebooks? (1 being the lowest 5 being the highest)

TANGIBILITY

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 15 15.0 15.0 15.0

2 9 9.0 9.0 24.0

3 13 13.0 13.0 37.0

4 25 25.0 25.0 62.0

5 38 38.0 38.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

LIBRARY

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 18 18.0 18.0 18.0

2 17 17.0 17.0 35.0

3 8 8.0 8.0 43.0

4 24 24.0 24.0 67.0

5 33 33.0 33.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

PASS IT ON

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 25 25.0 25.0 25.0

2 10 10.0 10.0 35.0

3 22 22.0 22.0 57.0

4 23 23.0 23.0 80.0

5 20 20.0 20.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

CAN PHYSICALLY HIGHLIGHT/ WRITE IN

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 14 14.0 14.0 14.0

2 12 12.0 12.0 26.0

3 10 10.0 10.0 36.0

4 20 20.0 20.0 56.0

5 44 44.0 44.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

NO EYE STRAIN WHILE READING

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 12 12.0 12.0 12.0

2 5 5.0 5.0 17.0

3 15 15.0 15.0 32.0

4 18 18.0 18.0 50.0

5 50 50.0 50.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

Q.8 Was cost a factor influencing you to purchase an e-book over a printed book?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid No 62 62.0 62.0 62.0

Yes 38 38.0 38.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

Q.9 Which would you say you own more?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid About the same. 13 13.0 13.0 13.0

EBooks 10 10.0 10.0 23.0

Printed Books 77 77.0 77.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

Q.10 If prices for printed books and ebooks are same, which would you prefer to buy?

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid Ebooks 13 13.0 13.0 13.0

Printed Books 87 87.0 87.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

BIVARIATE

CHI-SQUARE Test between gender and their preferred modes of reading.

H0: There is no statistically significant association between Gender of the respondent and their preferred mode of reading.

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H1: There is statistically significant association between Gender of the respondent and their preferred mode of reading.

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Valid Missing Total

N Percent N Percent N Percent

Gender * In general, which do you prefer to read for extended periods of time? 100 100.0% 0 0.0% 100 100.0%

Gender * In general, which do you prefer to read for extended periods of time? Crosstabulation

In general, which do you prefer to read for extended periods of time? Total

Ebooks Printed Books

Gender Female Count 8 43 51

Expected Count 10.2 40.8 51.0

Male Count 12 37 49

Expected Count 9.8 39.2 49.0

Total Count 20 80 100

Expected Count 20.0 80.0 100.0

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymptotic Significance (2-sided) Exact Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (1-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 1.210a 1 .271

Continuity Correctionb .723 1 .395

Likelihood Ratio 1.216 1 .270

Fisher’s Exact Test .323 .198

N of Valid Cases 100

a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 9.80.

b. Computed only for a 2×2 table

CHI SQAURE Test between Gender and cost as an influencing factor in buying Ebook over printed book

H0: There is no statistically significant association between Gender of the respondent and cost as an influencing factor in buying an Ebook.

H1: There is statistically significant association between Gender of the respondent and cost as an influencing factor in buying an Ebook.

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Valid Missing Total

N Percent N Percent N Percent

Gender * Was cost a factor influencing you to purchase an e-book over a printed book? 100 100.0% 0 0.0% 100 100.0%

Gender * Was cost a factor influencing you to purchase an e-book over a printed book? Crosstabulation

Was cost a factor influencing you to purchase an e-book over a printed book? Total

No Yes

Gender Female Count 31 20 51

Expected Count 31.6 19.4 51.0

Male Count 31 18 49

Expected Count 30.4 18.6 49.0

Total Count 62 38 100

Expected Count 62.0 38.0 100.0

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymptotic Significance (2-sided) Exact Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (1-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square .065a 1 .798

Continuity Correctionb .002 1 .961

Likelihood Ratio .065 1 .798

Fisher’s Exact Test .839 .480

N of Valid Cases 100

a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 18.62.

b. Computed only for a 2×2 table

CHI SQAURE Test between Gender and preference for printed books or Ebooks if cost is same

H0: There is no statistically significant association between Gender of the respondent and preference for printed books or Ebooks if cost is same for both.

H1: There is statistically significant association between Gender of the respondent and preference for printed books or Ebooks if cost is same for both

Case Processing Summary

Cases

Valid Missing Total

N Percent N Percent N Percent

Gender * if prices for printed books and ebooks are same, which would you prefer to buy? 100 100.0% 0 0.0% 100 100.0%

Gender * if prices for printed books and ebooks are same, which would you prefer to buy? Crosstabulation

if prices for printed books and ebooks are same, which would you prefer to buy? Total

Ebooks Printed

Gender Female Count 3 48 51

Expected Count 6.6 44.4 51.0

Male Count 10 39 49

Expected Count 6.4 42.6 49.0

Total Count 13 87 100

Expected Count 13.0 87.0 100.0

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymptotic Significance (2-sided) Exact Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (1-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 4.662a 1 .031

Continuity Correctionb 3.466 1 .063

Likelihood Ratio 4.869 1 .027

Fisher’s Exact Test .039 .030

N of Valid Cases 100

a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 6.37.

b. Computed only for a 2×2 table

INTRODUCTION

Technology and mobility have influenced every step of consumer’s life, including the way they read books. Book readers have started to change their reading habits, opting for different types of formats of books, such as e-books. An e-book, also known as an electronic or digital book, is a digitally released version of a book, often consisting of text and images and available on electronic devices, such as specifically designed e-book readers.

These books are readable on the electronic devices such as computer, mobile phone and tablets. Thus, the rising adoption of these smart devices is the major factor driving the global demand for e-books. Additionally, the environment protection campaigns from governments across the globe especially for saving trees is reducing the use of paper, which further increases the demand for e-books.

Moreover, the emerging trend of collecting information online for research or educational purpose is adding to the growth of e-books market. The fragility of books to wear and tear and need of adequate care, combined with high cost is further negating the demand for books.

The recent expansion of distribution platforms and channels, especially the e-retail, has brought publishing of e-books to an entirely new dimension. Globalization and digitization (internet) have made activities such as book launch an entirely global event, targeted towards global readers. However, the market for printed books is declining with the digitization of books and its easy availability and exchange over the internet. This trend is supporting the growth of e-book market

In addition, there are several online reading platforms that allow publishers and authors to upload their books on the internet based platforms for commercial as well as non-commercial purposes. Moreover, the readers can review the books and give their valuable comment for the same.

OBJECTIVE

The overall objective is to examine the changing trends in people’s preference from hard copy books to e-books.

The overall objective can be broken into the following sub-points:

1. Examining current market trends

2. Change in preferences of the readers

3. Factors influencing the change in market trends

4. Market projections for upcoming years

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