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P1: discuss the benefits and constraints of different network types and standards.

P1: Discuss the benefits and constraints of different network types and standards.

LO1 Examine networking principles and their protocols

A network is a collection of computer or hardware devices that are connected together, either physically or logically using special hardware and software to allow them to exchange information and cooperate.

Computer network

Networking describes the process involved in designing, implementing, upgrading, managing and otherwise working with networks and network technologies.

Benefits of networks

There are various benefits that are achieved in a networked environment they include:

1. Resource sharing: hardware, software and data can effectively be shared and utilized in a networked environment.

2. Improved communication: via emailing, instant messaging, skype, void(voice over internet protocol)”,

3. Improved work practice through teleworking, telecommuting (is a situation where employee does have to travel to their central place of work but remotely work from home)

4. Online collaboration facilitated by mostly video conferencing facilities to enable organization collaborates regardless to their geographical location.

5. Commercial opportunities business can be conducted through e-commerce.

6. Internet access network facilitates the internet

7. Entertainment through online games and YouTube video channels

Drawbacks

1. Costly to set up and maintain

2. Data security concerns through cyber-attacks, hacking

3. Undesirable (unwanted) sharing

4. Illegal and undesirable behaviors

5. Data security concerns

Network system types

1. peer-based network: This is a network where computer work as both workstations and servers. Each machine can have resources that are shared with any other machine. Every computer is an equal to the other computer in the network.

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Advantages

disadvantages

No need for a network operating system

Because each computer might be being accessed by others it can slow down the performance for the user

Doesn’t need an expensive server because single workstations are used to access the files

Files and folders cannot be centrally backed up

No need for specialist staff such as network technicians because each user sets their own permissions as to which files they are willing to share.

Files and resources are not centrally organized into a specific ‘shared area’.

Much easier to set up than a client-server network – does not need specialist knowledge

Ensuring that viruses are not introduced to the network is the responsibility of each individual user

If one computer fails it will not disrupt any other part of the network. It just means that those files aren’t available to other users at that time.

There is little or no security besides the permissions. Users often don’t need to log onto their workstations.

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2. client-server network: This is a network system where a small number of computers are designated as centralized servers and given the task of providing services to a large number of workstations called clients.

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Advantages

disadvantages

All files are stored in a central location

A specialist network operating system is needed

Network peripherals are controlled centrally

The server is expensive to purchase

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Backups and network security is controlled centrally

Specialist staff such as a network manager is needed

Users can access shared data which is centrally controlled

If any part of the network fails a lot of disruption can occur

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3. Cloud network: This system is the access of networking resources from a centralized 3rd party provider (remote located servers) using wide area networking or internet based technologies.

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Advantages

disadvantages

Cost efficiency – The biggest reason behind shifting to cloud computing is that it takes considerably lesser cost than an on premise technology.

Vulnerability to attacks – Storing data in cloud may pose serious challenge of information theft since in cloud every data of your company is online.

High Speed – Cloud computing lets you deploy the service quickly in fewer clicks. This quick deployment lets you get the resources required for your system within fewer minutes.

Network connectivity dependency – This means that you need a reliable, consistent internet, a good connection speed and bandwidth for your business to earn the benefits of cloud computing.

Excellent accessibility – Storing the information in cloud allows you to access it anywhere and anytime regardless of the machine making it highly accessible and flexible technology of present times.

Limited control – are completely owned and managed by the service providers, which makes it hard for the companies to have the level of control that they would want over their back-end infrastructure.

Back-up and restore data – Once the data is stored in Cloud, it is easier to get the back-up and recovery of that, which is quite a time taking process on premise.

When migrating from one cloud platform to another, the company might face some serious challenges because of the differences between vendor platforms.

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4. Cluster network: This basically connected computers that work together in many aspects so that they can be seen as a single system. Each node runs its own instance of operating systems and uses the same hardware. Computer cluster have each node set to perform the same task controlled and schedule by software. It may also include different local area network implemented to form a computer cluster. The networked computers essentially act a single much more powerful machine. It this provides much fast processing speed, large storage capacity, better data integrity, superior, reliability, etc.

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Advantages

disadvantages

High performance: The reason for the growth in use of clusters is that they have significantly reduced the cost of processing power.

Scalable Performance: This refers to the fact that scaling of the resources leads to proportional increase in performance.

Scalability: a cluster uses the combined processing power of compute nodes to run cluster-enabled applications.

Availability Support: provides cost-effective availability with lots of redundancy in processors, memories, I/O devices, networks, operating system images, etc.

System availability : offer inherent high system availability due to the redundancy of hardware, operating systems, and applications

Fault Tolerance and Recovery: Cluster of machines can be designed to eliminate all single points of failure. Through redundancy, the cluster can tolerate faulty condition up to certain extent

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5. Centralized network: This is a network where all users connect to a central server which is the acting agent for all communications. Most public instant messaging platform uses a centralized network.

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Advantages

disadvantages

Files are stored and backed up centrally

If you get the users password you can access the resources on the network.

Easy to coordinate and control from the center

If a file share goes offline many users are inconvenienced.

No centralized database needed

Requires setting up two call segments

Good solution for short term

Completely relies on donor network during call setup.

Easier to implement common policies and practices

Misses flexibility and speed of local decision making

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6. Virtualized network: This is a network system that facilitates data communication between 2 or more virtual machines. It is similar to traditional computer networking but its functions are mostly software driven.

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Advantages

disadvantages

It is cheaper.

It can have a high cost of implementation.

It keeps costs predictable.

It takes time.

It reduces the workload.

It creates a security risk.

It allows for faster deployment of resources.

It creates an availability and scalability issue.

It promotes digital entrepreneurship.

It requires several links in a chain that must work together cohesively.

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Networking Standards

Conceptual models

OSI model: helps to change the face of network computing. Before the OSI model, most commercial networks used by businesses were built using non-standardized technologies developed by one vendor. This model has 7 layers:

1-3 upper layer (application (provides user interface), presentation (presents data, handles processing such as encryption), session (keeps different application’ data separate))

4-7 lower layer (transport (provides reliable delivery, performs error correction before retransmit), network (which routers use for path determination), data link (combines packets into bits and bytes into frames, performs error detection not correction), physical (moves bits between bytes, KBS and MBS, specifies voltage, wire speed, and pin-out cables)).

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TCP/IP model: It is the basic communication language. TCP/IP can be used as communication protocols in an intranet or an extranet. It manages the gathering of messages or files into smaller packets which are transmitted over the internet and is received by the TCP layer which congregates the packets into the original form. Most widely used interoperable network protocol architecture Specified and extensively used before OSI. Used by the internet and the WWW.

Tcp def

Ip def

TCP does not have an official layer structure as the original had 4 layers.

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Comparision between osi and tcp/ip

Network Standards

LAN standards

These are used for communication with the second layer of an OSI model. These standards are maintained by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) and have three different standards that are used which are:

LAN standards

Description

IEEE 802.2

This is used to manage Ethernet data packets and is linked to the upper and lower layers of the OSI model.

IEEE 802.3

This is the definitions of a MAC addressing on network card and is used to detect the collision of data over a variety of speeds and media.

IEEE 802.5

This is used to manage token passing over a ring topology.

FDDI (fibre-distributed data interface)

This is used on fibre optic technology to be able to expand the distance of a LAN to over 120 miles. This enables LANS to operate on larger distances and send traffic in two directions so it increases the speed of the networks and the efficiency of it as well.

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LAN standards

Description

IEEE 802.1

Internetworking/ bridging

IEEE 802.2

Logical link control

IEEE 802.3

Mac layer, CSMA/CD LAN (Ethernet)

IEEE 802.4

Mac layer, Token bus LAN

IEEE 802.5

Mac layer, Token ring LAN

IEEE 802.6

MAN

IEEE 802.7

Broadband Technical Advisory Group

IEEE 802.8

Fiber-Optic Technical Advisory Group

IEEE 802.9

Integrated voice/ data network

IEEE 802.10

Network security

IEEE 802.11

Wireless network

IEEE 802.12

Demand priority access LAN, 100BaseVG-AnyLAN

IEEE 802.13

Unused

IEEE 802.14

Cable modern standards

IEEE 802.15

Wireless PAN

IEEE 802.16

Broadband wireless standards

WLAN standards

The standards used for WAN network is 802.11 standards as these can span over wide areas. This standard is broken down into different ones with different letters which are:

WLAN standards

Description

802.11

Specifies an interface between a wireless client and a base station between two wireless clients. Provides 1 or 2 Mbps transmission in the 2.4 GHz band using either frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS).

802.11a

Is used to work up to 120 meters and can run up to 54 mbps (Megabits per second).

802.11b

works up to 140 meters and can run up to 11 Mbps

802.11e

A wireless draft standard that defines the Quality of Service (QOS) support for LAN and enhancement of the 802.11a and 802.11b (WLAN) specifications.

802.11g

also works up to 140 meters but can run up to 54 Mbps

802.11n

up to 250 meters and can run to 150 Mbps

802.1X

Is an IEEE standard for port-based Network Access Control that allows network administrators to restricted use of IEEE 802 LAN service access points to secure communication between authenticated and authorized devices

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IMPACTS OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY, COMMUNICATION AND BANDWIDTH REQUIREMENTS

Network Topology

Physical

Logical

THE FOLLOWING TABLE SHOWS ON IMPACTS OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY

BANDWIDTH CONCEPTS

Factors that affect bandwidth

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Protocols

Compare common networking principles and how protocols enable the effectiveness of networked systems.

Network protocol

Types and purpose of network protocols

Internet protocol

Types of IP

IPV4

IPV6

5 classes

Comparision of osi and tcp/IP

LO2 network devices and operations

Discuss the operating principles of networking devices and server types.

Principles of network devices and server types

Server and their types

Discuss the interdependence of workstation hardware with relevant networking software.

Workstation

Software

Hardware

Networking software that can be used

Workstation hardware that can be used

Explore a range of server types and justify the selection of a server, considering a given scenario regarding cost and performance optimization.

Web server

Database server

File server (cloud)

Considering a given scenario, identify the topology protocol selected for the efficient utilization of a networking system.

Efficient utilization

LO3 Design efficient networked systems

Design a networked system to meet a given specification.

Physical design

Logical design

Justification of physical and logical design

Test and evaluate the design to meet the requirements and analyze user feedback.

Install and configure network services and applications on your choice.

Design a maintenance schedule to support the networked system.

LO4 Implement and diagnose networked systems

Implement a networked system based on a prepared design.

Document and analyze test results against expected results.

Recommend potential enhancements for the networked systems.

Use critical reflection to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusions.

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