Microbes as a source of renewable fuel Climate change has not only enhanced emergence of pests and pathogens in agriculture but has affected soil quality negatively. In this scenario, to overcome adverse conditions a large pile of fossil fuel is used for generating energy, to derive synthesis of chemicals needed in agriculture in the form of fertilizers and pesticides. Moreover, advancement in technology has lead to mechanization of agriculture which consumes a large part of energy. Use of plant probiotics can though reduce use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides and thereby reducing energy input which is used in the synthesis of chemicals (Russo et al., 2012). Various bio-control agents are known which can be used efficiently for controlling pests and pathogens in field such as N. Fresenii, B. thuringiensis, Trichoderma, etc. N. fresenii is reported to control cotton pest A. gossypii, and rust fungus M. cryptostegiae where as B. thuringiensis kills lepidoptera and diptera larvae. Trichoderma is a well established bio-control agent against several pathogens in variety of crops (Martínez et al., 2015; Marra et al., 2019). Though, it is completely an impossible task to replenish exhausting fossil fuel reserve as it takes hundreds of millions years to produce fossil fuels. Progressing advances in science has made microbial biofuels closer to economic reality and an alternative to fossil fuels. One benefit of using microbes for producing biofuels is they can be cultivated and replenished easily. Overall, due to multifaceted ability as well as effortlessness associated with microbes, they might be a promising approach to substitute a quantity of our fossil fuel usage. Certainly, employing sun’s energy in solar power, photovoltaics, etc helps to congregate human demand, but use of energy stored in waste biomass and water can undeniably contribute in energy security. However, there is a drawback associated with microbial factories i.e., they sometimes evolve in an unexpected way, so it becomes challenging to figure out how to get maximum output. Need to exploit microbes for climate change mitigation Microbial activities are crucial for sustainability of life on earth. Whether, it is degradation of organic matter, bioremediation or plant growth promotion, microbes are very essential. Consequently, conservation of microbial diversity becomes necessary (Colwell, 1997). In present time, population in increasing rapidly and climate change problems have surged, plant-microbe interaction and microbial communities are also affected severely. Higher concentrations of CO2 in atmosphere limit nutrients like nitrogen acquisition rate and, thereby increase fertilizer input and consequently energy (Bhattacharyya et al., 2016). Microbial metabolic activity alters carbon and nitrogen exchanges between land and atmosphere in many ways, on the basis of which microbes are classified into different categories. One group is of methane oxidizing microbes, known as methanotrophs, which acts as sink for methane emission therefore reducing methane emission to the atmosphere. Apart from these exploitation and management of plants probiotics and nitrifying bacteria to be used as biofertilizer and bio-control agent can contribute to both climate change adaptation and mitigation (Bhattacharyya et al., 2016). Recent advancement in science and technology has made microbial genome sequence easily available and, thus, genomic approaches can be powerful tools for food and energy sustainability. Further, novel genes related with tolerance for several harsh conditions can be identified using above mentioned techniques. The research should be focussed more on to exploit diverse microbial communities and efficient strains that can help in combating climate shift in future. Conclusion Rapidly increasing population, disproportionate usage of chemicals, decreasing cultivable land and water resources have affected food and energy security profoundly. But recent research has indicated that shifting climatic condition has made the condition even worse because extremes of climate enhance problems like drought, cyclone, floods, etc. Rising concern about food and energy insecurity has attracted minds of scientists to propel investigation for alternative eco-friendly approaches for food and energy security. Presence of diverse microbial population on earth maintain ecosystem functioning and could be exploited more for amelioration of stress induced by climate change. Beneficial microbes have already been documented as an appropriate choice for plant growth and development under various biotic and biotic stresses, and therefore, offers an innovative crop protection tool for climate change too. Smart sustainable development needs a better understanding of interactions between plants, microbes and global climate change that will help to fight against climate change.
Pgpr food security energy security climate change
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