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Population policies

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The different population-related policies (or lack of it) in three different countries and what kind of impacts the population changes have made on other national level policies, and infrastructure development

Introduction

Population growth and the issues related to population is one of the major demographical problems in so many countries around the world. This assignment is to analyze the different population-related policies or lack of it in China, India and Bangladesh and what kind of impacts the population changes have made on other national level policies, and infrastructure development in these three countries.

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China

In 1950s, the idea of implementing one child policy came into play to reduce the growth of population and to solve the problem of wanting more resources such as food to feed all the citizens in China. During the early of 1960s a campaign was executed promoting late marriages and a two child family under the slogan of “One is good few, two is just enough and three is over” (White 1994; 2006). In 1979, one child policy is officially implemented by the government to strict the people to have one child with so many benefits such as financial and material incentives, preferential access to housing, schools and health services and there were so many procedures to have another child with more penalties and punishments. Though this policy has reduced the population growth, there were so many impacts on other national level policies and infrastructure development. The main impacts of this policy making in other local policies and infrastructure can be seen as follows”,

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 Unbalanced sex ratios and urban rural ratio is one of the main consequences rose from this policy. The people were compelled to have one child and the people wish to have one boy to look after them when they are aged. So the number of men increased rapidly which made an unbalanced sex ratio. When a girl got birth from a parents, they were not registered and most of the time they were aborted. And the rural people were very difficult to convince adopting to this policy where the urban people adopted quickly. So there was an unbalanced situation among rural and urban population.

 The changes in family structures is also became a problem which is number of nuclear families were increased than extended families. Adoption is also became very famous that more female babies were adopted by Americans.

 Aging population rapidly increased since the new birth is controlled suddenly with a high rate. Health care services, elderly education and other services which are required by the aging population had to be increased in China. The infrastructure development had to be changed considering the aging population such as public transport facilities, education centers and health care centers.

 Socialization of children is also affected by this policy. Children were kept under the take care of parents and grandparents. But the children were got less opportunities to make new relationships and friendships with the same age population. The thinking pattern of the children had changed through this policy implementation and the child could not get the chances to live with his own siblings.

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India

Bangladesh

Population related policies in Bangladesh has two phases. The first policy was lasted from 1973 to 1996 which has a target to driven family planning programme to reduce the population growth. And the second phase was started in 1997 to present which is to deal with broader range of reproductive health issues targeted at a larger number of population groups rather than addressing family planning needs alone. This concept is integrating health and family planning facilities and personnel to provide an essential services package focusing on reproductive health. Some of the impacts and related local policies are discussed below”,

 This policy was a solution for the problem of unmet contraceptive needs. There was a policy to support providing quality services, information, education and communication. And another policy promoted using clinical contraceptive methods.

 Adolescent population growth is also pointed out in this policy where some of the main programmes of the policy mainly focus on this area. Adolescent health and provision of reproductive health care are main core areas of some of the programmes of the policy. The ministry of education of Bangladesh was planning to add this population education in the curricula.

 The issue of maternal mortality and morbidity was focused through the policy of providing good reproductive healthcare including safe pregnancy and abortion.

 Under the programme of providing reproductive healthcare, HIV/AIDS was also taken into consideration and implemented a national policy related to this to reduce the transmission, the level of risk and the impacts.

 Several multi sectorial collaborative programmes were designed to focus on women empowerment in this policy which is to provide reproductive health education and vocational training. Supportive scholarship programmes were started for the higher studies of the women. This encouraged the women to join in a job actively.

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 Urbanization issue is also addressed in this policy. This is recommending to increase the employment level to reduce urban migration.

References

[1] White, T. 1994. “The Origins of China’s Birth Planning Policy.” Pp. 250-278 in Engendering China edited by C. K. Gilmartin, G. Herstatter, L. Rofel, and T. White . Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[2] B. H. Settles and X. Sheng, “THE ONE CHILD POLICY AND ITS IMPACT ON CHINESE FAMILIES”,” https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228697017, 2008

[3] Bangladesh’s population policy: Emerging issues and future agenda, CPD – UNFPA Paper series 23

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