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Power management plan & policy in windows

Power management plan & policy in windows

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ABHI PRAJAPATI

17BIT084

[image: image1.jpg]

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Ahmedabad 382481

Power management plan & policy in windows

Seminar

Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements

For the degree of

Bachelor of Technology in Information Technology

By

ABHI PRAJAPATI

17BIT084

Guided By

PROF. MONIKA SHAH

[DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING]

[image: image2.jpg]

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Ahmedabad 382481

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Seminar entitled “Power management plan & policy in windows” submitted by ABHI PRAJAPATI (17BIT084), towards the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Information Technology of Nirma University is the record of work carried out by him/her under my supervision and guidance. In my opinion, the submitted work has reached a level required for being accepted for examination.

[NAME OF FACULTY] Dr. Madhuri Bhavsar

[DESIGNATION OF FACULTY] Dept. of Information Technology”,

Department of Computer Engineering, Institute of Technology”,

Institute of Technology, Nirma University”,

Nirma University, Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to give my special thanks to my faculty guide Pro. Monika Shah who made me capable to work on this project based on Power management plan & policy in windows, whom also helped me in completing a ton of Research and I learned about so many new and useful things.

ABSTRACT/ Outline

The abstract shall highlight the important details of the Seminar work. It should consist of objective of work, scope of work, preliminary work carried out and important findings.

Objective: –

-The purpose of this paper is to make power consumption at nearer level and quick recovery to active state.

Approach: –

-I first found out the causes of the reduction of battery life & then came up

with some strategies.

-Then, I included some power management standards and some factors that improves power management.

Important findings: –

-The paper provides insight into the techniques that successfully useful in improvement in power management. Recognizes the importance of power management in modern computers.

CONTENTS

Certificate

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of figures

List of tables

Chapter 1

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Introduction 7

1.1

General

7

1.2

Scope of Work

7

Chapter 2

Literature survey

2.1 General

7

Chapter 3

Power management

3.1 Causes of reduction in power and strategies

8

3.2

Power states

8

3.3

power utilization in modern computer

10

3.4

state wise power comparison

10

Chapter 4

Power management standard

4.1

Advanced power management

11

4.2

ACPI

12

Chapter 5

power management states

5.1

global system state

13

5.2

system state

14

5.3

processor power state

14

Chapter 6

Summary and Conclusion

6.1

Summary

6.2

Conclusions

1.Introduction

1.1 General

Todays, Power management is the requirement of so many companies and industries. Therefore, some organizations are working on that means they do monitoring and try to find ways to save the waste of power. Generally, there are some policies available that are useful to reduce the power consumption. We can make our own policies by just setting some parameters as per our usage.

1.2 Scope of work

Power management is essential task because through that so much power energy can be saved. Some companies try to involve different technology like IOT. so, there is so much scope available because it’s a qualitative research work.

2.Literature Survey

2.1 General

The Literature overview included papers and books that acquainted distinctive strategies with diminish the power utilization in windows. Papers that concentrated basically on the methods fundamental power the board were concentrated to decide the subjects to be included for the Seminar, thus those papers were picked that lined up with the themes chose beforehand.

3.Power management

3.1

causes of reduction in power and strategies

There are some factors for reduction in power like hardware and software.

Low qualitative battery is the example of hardware that cause reduction.

The processor incentive drivers and a badly configured settings of power management. This all are causes significant reduction in power.

So, we have some strategies for that.

Display brightness is one of the most power consumer. That uses up to 40% battery in the system. So, make brightness at needed level. Make display timeout as low as possible. When computer goes in idle state, the hard disk motor will stop and when comes in active state motor will take time as well as power. So, as per the need we need to set the time.

We should have updated your computer for windows drivers. We need to Check memory and memory usage. Check for space in disk and try to make some space. Close all unnecessary programs. Check for viruses and keep updated. Check for all corrupted files. Reset all settings.

3.2

Power states

1.Active:

Active state can be defined as operating mode when any activity done under a 30 second. When we start or boot the computer, it goes to the active power state. Every activity can be done in Active state. When device receives SET_POWERON, computer goes to active state.

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2.Idle:

Idle state can be defined as operating mode when no activity is done under a 30 second. The power consumption in this is less compared to active state. Scanning rate will also be lower. It is device initiated.

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3.sleep:

The Sleep state is defined as the device operating mode when the device has been issued a HID I²C SET_POWER SLEEP command by the host.

The device should transition to the Active state after receiving a HID I²C SET_POWER ON command from the host.

4.Off:

The Off state is defined as the device operating mode when the device has had its power completely removed. In the Off state a device should not consume any power. It is host initiated.

3.3

power utilization in modern computers

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3.4

state wise power comparison

· How.sleep.state works:

In.sleep.state, all.the.files and.programs.that are.running.right now”,.remain.all these.this.in ram.and.all other.parts.of entire.computer.will be.off..It takes.very.less time.to.recover.

· How.hibernate.state works:

In.hibernate.state, all.the.files and.programs.that are.running.right now”,.put.their copy.into.hard disc.and.system will.be.off. It.takes.much higher.time.to recover.as.compared to.sleep.state.

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4.Power management standard

4.1

Advanced power management

Advanced.Power.Management is.an.application programming.interface.developed jointly.by.Microsoft and.Intel..It allows.an.operating system.to.communicate with.the.computer’s BIOS.in.order to.achieve.efficient power.management..The latest.APM.specification was.Revision.1.2. Microsoft.discontinued.support for.APM.starting with.Windows.Vista in.favor.of the.advanced.configuration and.power.interface. APM.is.a layered.approach.in.device management..From.the top”,.APM-aware.applications and.programs.such as.device.drivers communicate.with.the OS’s.APM.driver. This.driver.then communicates.to.the APM-aware.BIOS”,.which controls.the.hardware and.is.then able.to.make changes.according.to the.requests.sent from.the.top. Communication.is.bi-directional, meaning.that.power management.events.are relayed.from.the BIOS.to.the OS.APM driver”,.and.the.APM driver.can send.requests.to.the BIOS.through.function calls..The.APM driver.simply.acts as.an.intermediary between.the.OS and.BIOS..Power management.can.occur.through.power.state change.requests.or automatically.through.set parameters.based.on device.activity.

4.2

ACPI

Advanced.Configuration and.Power.Interface is.an.industry.specification intended.for.the efficient.management.of power.consumption in.mobile.and desktop.computers..ACPI describes.the.way in.which.a computer’s.standard.input/output system”,.peripheral.devices and.operating.system correspond.regarding.power consumption..ACPI’s.key goal.is.to consolidate”,.examine.and enhance.the.present power.and.configuration standards.meant.for hardware.devices..ACPI specifies.platform-independent.interfaces intended.for.configuration, hardware.discovery”,.monitoring and.power.management. This.standard.was initially.designed.by Intel”,.Toshiba.and Microsoft.and.later accompanied.by.Phoenix and.HP..ACPI provides.a.crossover from.earlier.standards to.hardware.that is.completely.ACPI-compliant. Geared.toward.substituting the.plug.and.play basic.input/output.system.specification, multiprocessor.specification.and advanced.power.management, the.ACPI.standard delivers.power.to operating.system.power management”,.in.contrast to.earlier.BIOS central.systems.that primarily.depend.on platform.specific.firmware to.determine.power management.and.configuration policy.

5.Power.management.states

Power Management.states.and required.functionality.are defined.for

multiple

.levels.of.the.system

Global view:

Gx states

System:.

Sx states.

Processor:.

Cx states.

.PCI /.PCI-X Bus:.

Bx.states

PCI.Express Links:.

Lx states

.Devices:

Dx.states

5.1

Global system

G.States reflect.the User’s.perception of.the machine.

.G0 Working.(S0)

A.computer state.where the.system fully.operational. It.is not.safe to.disassemble the.machine in.this state..

G1.Sleeping (.S1-S4)

.Power consumption.is small.and the.system “appears”.to be.off..Work can.be.resumed.without rebooting.the.OS. Large.elements.of system.context.are saved.by.the hardware.and.the rest.by.system software.

G2.Soft.Off (S5)

.

The.computer consumes a minimal amount of power. This state requires a large latency in order to return the Working state. The system’s context will.not.be saved..The.system must.be.restarted.

G3.Mechanical.Off

This.state.that.is entered.by a.mechanical.means (i.e. power.switch)..The OS.must.be restarted.and.no hardware.context.is retained…Except.for the.real-time.clock, power.consumption.is zero.

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5.2

System.state.

S0.Working State.

Fully.powered and.operational..

S1/S2 Sleep.States.(not generally.used).

Low wake.latency.and no.system.context is.lost..S2 is.the.same as.S1.except CPU.and.cache context.is.lost.

S3 Sleep.State.(also known.as.Suspend to.RAM).

The.S3.sleep state.is.a low.wake.latency sleep.state..Memory image.maintained.and powered..CPU”,.chipset, I/O.devices.lose context.

S4.Sleep.State (also.known.as Suspend.to.Disk, or.Hibernate).

Longest.wake.latency sleeping.state”,.all devices.are.powered off…Platform context.is.maintained in.the.hibernate file.on.the.Hard Drive..

S5 Soft.Off.State.

S5 is.similar.to the.S4.state except.that.the.OS does.not.save any.context..The system.is.in the.“soft”.off state.and requires.a complete.boot.when it.wakes.

5.3.

Processor power.state

C0.Processor Power.State

.

While.the processor.is.in this.state”,.it executes.instructions.

C1.Processor Power.State

.This.power state.has.the lowest.latency. The.processor.in a.non-executing.power state..Platform.scales the.CPU.clock frequency..

C2.Processor Power.State

.This.state offers.improved.power savings.over the.C1.state. The.processor.in a.non-executing.power state.

.Platform.scales the.CPU.clock frequency.and.voltage.

C3.Processor.Power State.

.The C3.state.offers improved.power.savings over.the.C1 and.C2.states. Processor’s.caches.maintain state.but.ignore any.snoops.

PowerCFG.Tool

You can.disable.and enable.devices.by using.the.PowerCFG tool..Or”,.you can.use.the.Power Management.tab.in the.properties of.the.device in.Device Manager.to select.the Allow.this device.to wake.the.computer.check box..If.you’d.prefer not.to.wake.the computer.by.using.the mouse.or.is not.sure.why a.computer.woke, PowerCFG.can.tell you..Additionally”,.the PowerCFG.tool.can be.scripted.for domain.use.

Syntax

:.powercfg ./option

POWERCFG.-Q

It will.display.the contents.of.power scheme.

Power.Throttling.

A detection.system.built into Windows.helps.it.identify active.user.tasks or.work that.is.important to.the user.and.keep them.running..The other.processes.are automatically.throttled..The Task.Manager.can be.used.readily to.find such.apps.

Windows.Kernel Mode.Power.Manager

The Windows.kernel-mode.power manager.manages.the orderly.change.in power.status.for all.devices.that support.power.state changes..This.is often.done.through a.complex.stack of.devices.controlling other.devices..Each controlling.device is.called a.node and.must have.a driver.that.can handle.the communication.of power.state.changes up.and.down through.a.device stack.

Dynamic voltage scalling

DVS stands for dynamic voltage scaling. where the voltage used in a component is increased or decreased, depending upon circumstances.Dynamic voltage scaling to increase voltage is known as overvolting; dynamic voltage scaling to decrease voltage is known as undervolting.Undervolting is done in order to conserve power, particularly in laptops.Overvolting is done in order to increase computer performance.The term “overvolting” is also used to refer to increasing static operating voltage of computer components to allow operation at higher speed (overclocking).

Dynamic frequency scalling

Dynamic frequency scaling also known as CPU throttling. the frequency of a microprocessor can be automatically adjusted “on the fly” depending on the actual needs, to conserve power and reduce the amount of heat generated by the chip. Dynamic frequency scaling reduces the number of instructions a processor can issue in a given amount of time, thus reducing performance. Hence, it is generally used when the workload is not CPU-bound

6.

Summary and Conclusion

6.1 summary

We have seen different states in cpu and some power management schemes. So, using Windows Kernel Mode Power Manager, it can handle alll the states of devices and it can save power in computer. Using dynamic voltage and frequency scalling system can be able to reduce power wastage. new management system acpi is very helpful.

6.2

Conclusions

3.1.https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-hardware/manufacture/desktop/managing-battery-life-and-power-consumption-overview-technicalreference

3.1

https://support.microsoft.com/en-in/help/4002019/windows-10-improve-pc-performance

3.2

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-hardware/drivers/kernel/power-states

3.3

https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/e7/2009/01/06/windows-7-energy-efficiency/

4.2

https://www.techopedia.com/definition/4962/advanced-configuration-and-power-interface-acpi

4.1

https://www.techopedia.com/search?q=advanced+power+management&section=all

5

Troubleshoot Power Plans in Windows with PowerCFG Tool

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