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Quality defects in bread making

QUALITY DEFECTS IN BREAD MAKING

PROCESSING:

It is important to be methodical when trying to determine the cause of a fault. Sometimes there may be more than one cause and these may interact with each other. It is best to try to solve the fault by one change at a time rather than making changes to ingredients, processing and handling all at once. Possible causes of faults in bread can be grouped into five main categories:

1. Defective or inappropriate ingredients

2. Unbalanced formulation

3. Poor dough development and maturity

4. Incorrectly adjusted or poorly maintained equipment

5. Poor handling after baking.

IDEAL CHARCTERISTICS FOR A LOAF OF BREAD:

The ideal characteristics for a standard loaf of bread are:

• Even top with slightly rounded corners

• Smooth thin crust, with no holes, streaks, cracks or wrinkles

• Uniform golden-brown crust; rim of crust is pale

• Fine crumb, uniform cell structure, thin cell walls, texture soft to touch.

BREAD FAULTS FOR BREAD MADE USING MECHANICAL DOUGH DEVELOPMENT METHOD CHARCTERISTICS:

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Characteristic Fault Cause

Volume Too small

Too large -Work input too high for the type of flour used Weak flour Cold dough Tight dough Not enough yeast, dough conditioner or emulsifier Short intermediate proof Short tin proof Too much moulding pressure Too much salt Under-developed (for strong flour

Hot dough Slack dough Long intermediate or final proof Too much yeast Very strong flour

Crust Bubbles Wrong dough conditioner Final proof too long & humid Too much pressure during moulding

Stack dough

Crust colour Pale

High Not enough sugar

Cool oven

Too much sugar or malt Too much salt Hot oven Defective yeast

Crust texture Flying top

Torn and Ragged

Shiny High

High

Over developed

Loaf form Too bold, excessively rounded corners

Too much sugar or malt Too much salt Hot oven Defective yeast Over developed

Underdeveloped

Under oxidised

Crumb Doughy

Dry Too much malt Flour made with sprouted wheat

Under baked

Over-baked Lack of dough conditioners

Crumb texture Coarse and open

Closed and tight

Irregular cores or streaks Weak flour Long intermediate and tin proof Not enough or wrong dough conditioner

Not enough vaccum

Short tin proof Defective yeast Tight dough Too much vacuum

Too much moulding pressure

Crumb colour Dark

Yellow Bran in flour

Dough too hot

Wheat type

BREAD FAULTS FOR BREAD MADE USING BULK FERMENTATION METHOD

Characteristic Fault Cause

Volume Too small Maybe with flying top

Too large Short tin proof Tight dough Over-mature dough Too much moulding pressure Green dough caused by low dough temperature Not enough sugar or malt – sometimes a pink tinge can be seen in the crumb

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Too much salt

Weak flour

Weak proof

Crust colour Pale

High Over-mature dough Not enough sugar or malt Heavy moulding Cool oven

Green dough

Too much sugar or malt Too much ammonium chloride or salt Hot oven

Crust texture Flying top

Torn and ragged

Shiny Short tin proof Over-mature dough Heavy moulding Green dough

Loaf form Too bold, excessively rounded corners

Lack of boldness, flat top, sharp corners Excessive maturity Tight dough Short tin proof

Green dough Slack dough Excessive tin proof

Crumb Doughy

Dry Excessive malt Flour made with sprouted wheat Under-baked

Over-baked Lack of dough conditioners

Crumb texture Course and open

Irregular cores and streaks

Tight crumb

Green dough Over-proof Slack dough Cool oven – causing excessive gassing after loaf has set

Over-mature dough Too much moulding pressure

Under proof

Tight dough

Crumb colour Greyish

Yellowish Over mature dough

Green dough

Aroma Yellow

Acid Green dough

Hot dough Over-mature

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