As we talk about yeast it is defined as eukaryotic fungi that are unicellular and it has totally different properties then those of prokaryotic microorganism. this is eukaryotic so it contains membrane bounded organelle which may include nucleus, vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and cytoskeleton. the size ranges from 5 *10micro meter. it can be identified on the basis of its morphology, physiology, and biological structure (salzar, Salem, & E.kholif, 2016). The most important feature of yeast cell is mechanical support provided by the network of cytoskeleton which allows asymmetric division in this way yeast divide by the process of budding in order to form daughter cells from the mother cell. moreover the yeast cell shape is maintained by mano protein and glycan’s (Kovacevic, 2015)
Yeast is characterized in further 2 types which include oxidative yeast and fermentative yeast. these both differ from each other in this way that oxidative yeast grow on the surface of liquid in form of film so it can be called as film yeast. while the fermentative yeasts grow throughout the whole liquid. it is termed under the class of facultative aerobes because they carry out fermentation when there is not enough supply of oxygen .so it can act accordingly to the situation.
Yeast is considered to be the organism used for the production of alcohol beverages and versatile range of products. the products have a major impact on the food industry and agriculture (Micro & Molecular biology ).. yeast has also a positive role in the food industry because of their impact on product flavor. yeast is also found in the fermentation various cereal products, sour dough bread as well as in the production of cheese. On the other hand, the food Industry have threats from yeast in the major production line of food.
Yeast has a positive role in the food industry… the most common food grade yeast Is saccharomyces cerevisaei also known as baker’s yeast which is majorly used in the production of wide range of baked products which may include bread , dough etc. .”,. The related strains of this specie is used in production of beer, wines and distillates (bekatorou & psarianos, 2006). The further types of yeast are brewer yeast, probiotic yeast, yeast extract, and trouble yeast.
Beyond all the function it serves the main function of cheese maturation. this include various strains D. hansenni , S.cerevisiae which grow at higher rate and impart cheese flavor and texture through the process of proteolysis , fermentation of lactose , and utilization . Moreover in the sausages and curd hams the texture and color development is imparted by Y .lipolytical and various CANDIDA species (Fleet). It is believed that in the fermentation it is used as starters , the benefit is that there is less risk of development of off flavor and help in enhancing the quality of fermented foods due to the quality of strains which are used as starter culture (biotechnological application of yeast in food sciences ; starter cultures probiotic and enzyme production, 2017, pp. 1-3) .
As yeast has a negative role in the food industry they cause spoilage in the food. trihosporon. spp are the species that are filamentous in shape and can cause spoilage in the fermenting yeast and beers. they can grow at low temperature on the stored on the vegetable salads. as well rhodotorula spp. They reproduce by the process of budding and has mycelium like structure. they cause color formation with the production of red color on meat, fish etc. (ERKMEN & T)
bekatorou, A., & psarianos, C. (2006). production of food grade yeast. food grade yeast “,food technol, 1-9.
biotechnological application of yeast in food sciences ; starter cultures probiotic and enzyme production. (2017). journal of applied microbiology , 1.
ERKMEN, O., & T, F. B. (n.d.). FOOD MICROBIOLOGY PRINCIPLE INTO PRACTICES . WILLEY .
Fleet, G. H. (n.d.). Yeast in foods and beverages. Science direct , 1-6.
Kovacevic, M. k. (2015). Morphological and physiological charecteristic of yeast . Zagreb .
Micro & Molecular biology . (n.d.). Yeast and Mold , 1-3.
salzar, H. g., Salem, A., & E.kholif, A. (2016). YEAST ADDITIVE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION. INDIA: PUBBioMed central research publishing services.