Running head : cyber crimes
Live is walking now in developing road , this developing born many new problems . developing in digital side had made something called cybercrimes , Cybercrimes are crimes which are directed at computers or other devices it is doing by people who they are professional in computers .
Literature review :
It’s a Dangerous World for Information Systems 40Cyberwar Recently in the news… In recent years, North Korea is alleged to have staged thousands of cyberwar attacks against the South, causing financial losses of around $805 million. According to the South Korean Defense Ministry’s cyberwarfare unit, the South Korean military alone had been the target of 6″,392 North Korean cyber attacks of varying scale since 2010. South Korean Chosen media reported on 12 November 2013 that North Korea is making massive preparations for more cyberwarfare attacks against the South to include attacks against the GPS systems for aircraft and ships in and near the Seoul metropolitan area and Chungcheong provinces . Hacking The term “hacker” and much of what would become hacker culture emerged at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT) Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in the late 1950s At the time, the only computers were mainframes behemoths one interacted with via a cumbersome process involving punch cards. This created a problem for a group of MIT students who were interested in computers and programming: only faculty and other “important” users were authorized to use MIT main-frames. A sympathetic computer technician eventually let the students use a special mainframe on loan to MIT, one they could directly interact with instead of having to use the punch card process. By working with this computer, the students learned programming learned how to make a computer “do” things (such as converting Arabic numbers to Roman n u m e r ls).More precisely, they learned to “hack”,” but hacking did not have the negative connotation it has today . Instead of being the target of a cybercrime, a computer can be a tool that is used to commit a cyberanalogue of a traditional crime, such as theft or fraud. In tool cybercrimes, the computer’s role is analogous to either the gun used to rob a bank or the implements a burglar uses to break into a building. In either instance, the computer is merely a device the cyber-criminal employs to commit a crime involving computer technology but not directed at a computer “victim.” In tool crimes, then, the computer plays a lesser but still far from insignificant role in the criminal activity. Law has approached target and tool cybercrimes differently. Target cybercrimes generally required the adoption of new laws because the conduct involved and the harm inflicted by a target cybercrime was not encompassed by traditional criminal law. Tool cybercrimes generally have not required the adoption of new, cybercrime-specific laws because they involve using computer technology to commit what is already a crime . . . which might lead one to wonder why they should require any new law. The extent to which a particular tool cybercrime requires modifying existing law or adopting new law is a function of the particular crime at issue. This chapter analyzes the extent to which traditional criminal law is adequate to deal with the various tool cybercrimes . Cyberspace erodes the distinctions between the three threat categories by undermining the validity of certain assumptions that underlie how societies define and respond to the real-world threats. Cyberspace eliminates the constraints of the physical world and makes geography irrelevant: cybercriminals can attack victims in other countries as easily as they can attack someone in their neighborhood. And while there may not, as yet, have been a verified incident of cyberterrorism, the same is likely to be true of it, as well. This aspect of cybercrime and cyber-terrorism means they are no longer purely internal threats; rather, they can be internal threats, external threats, or a combination of both. Cyberspace also vitiates identity: cybercriminals and cyberterrorists can be anonymous or assume false identities with an efficacy that is impossible in the physical world. The elimination of physical constraints and the alteration or elimination of identity combine to erode the efficacy of the traditional law enforcement model, which nation-states use to enforce their criminal laws. Since it evolved to deal with crime, which is subject to the physical constraints of the real world, the model assumes local crime, local perpetrators, and a physical crime scene. Police use these characteristics of crime to identify and apprehend perpetrators; as everyone probably knows, it is exceedingly difficult to commit a physical crime without leaving trace evidence at the scene (and perhaps being observed by witnesses). Officers investigating a crime can also focus on links between the victim and perpetrator because it is equally difficult to mask one’s movements and relationships in the physical world. These investigative procedures, and the assumptions that underlie them, become problematic when criminal activity is mediated through the cyber world . How to protect yourself against cybercrime: Anyone using the internet should exercise some basic precautions. Here are 11 tips you can use to help protect yourself against the range of cybercrimes out there: Use a full-service internet security suite For instance, Norton Security provides real-time protection against existing and emerging malware including ransomware and viruses, and helps protect your private and financial information when you go online , Use strong password Don’t repeat your passwords on different sites, and change your passwords regularly. Make them complex. That means using a combination of at least 10 letters, numbers, and symbols. A password management application can help you to keep your passwords locked down , Keep your software updated This is especially important with your operating systems and internet security software. Cybercriminals frequently use known exploits, or flaws, in your software to gain access to your system. Patching those exploits and flaws can make it less likely that you’ll become a cybercrime target , Manage your social media settings Keep your personal and private information locked down. Social engineering cybercriminals can often get your personal information with just a few data points, so the less you share publicly, the better. For instance, if you post your pet’s name or reveal your mother’s maiden name, you might expose the answers to two common security questions , Strengthen your home network It’s a good idea to start with a strong encryption password as well as a virtual private network. A VPN will encrypt all traffic leaving your devices until it arrives at its destination. If cybercriminals do manage to hack your communication line, they won’t intercept anything but encrypted data. It’s a good idea to use a VPN whenever you a public Wi-Fi network, whether it’s in a library, café, hotel, or airport , Talk to your children about the internet You can teach your kids about acceptable use of the internet without shutting down communication channels. Make sure they know that they can come to you if they’re experiencing any kind of online harassment, stalking, or bullying , Keep up to date on major security breaches If you do business with a merchant or have an account on a website that’s been impacted by a security breach, find out what information the hackers accessed and change your password immediately . MUSCAT: Government portals and networks are consistently subjected to ransomware attacks, both locally and internationally, while the Oman National Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) actively works to combat these attacks. Motives for such attacks can be to demonstrate the skills and capabilities of the attacker, generate money, or they could even be state sponsored attacks for espionage or as part of a cyber war, according to Engineer Bader Ali Al Salhi . Director General of Oman National CERT : They come from different sources and places from within the Sultanate, and abroad. Sometimes the attacks come from compromised computers within a country, but actually controlled from a different server in another state where they are generating such attacks”,” said Al Salhi …
Design of study: I would like to use qualitative research method for this study .
Clough, C., & Jonathan, J.(2010).Principles of cybercrime: P. Cambridge “,UK: Cambridge University .
Mehan, M.& E”,J.(2014)cyber war, cyber terror, cybercrime and cyber activism : C. Cambridge, UK: IT Governance .
Brenner , & Susan, S.(2012).Cybercrime and the Law :C. Boston: Northeastern University Press .
According to Norton by Symantec, 11 ways to help protect yourself against cybercrime “,Retrieved from https://us.norton.com/internetsecurity-how-to-how-to-recognize-and-protect-yourself-from-cybercrime.html
Al Haremi, T.(2016 December27). Oman cybercrime: Ransomware attacks consistently target government portals, networks. Retrieved from https://timesofoman.com/article/99399
According to An Australian Government initiative, Learn about cybercrime, Retrieved from https://www.acorn.gov.au/learn-about-cybercrime