Engineering course helps the students to decide on a career in engineering. The different disciplines of engineering are explored by engineering. Engineer will always be trained in discipline. They will become multi-disciplined. Now a day engineers are essential to have a capable knowledge of related sciences for their design projects. Many engineers continue to learn new substantial throughout their career. Engineers use their knowledge to find suitable solutions to a problem. Engineering can be done by everyone, as long as you have a passion for problem solving.
There are some many branches of engineering.
Construction industry is one of the most dangerous profession and the best profession. Construction become famous because of population grows.
Client requirements, economics climate, construction education are the main factors in construction field. Permanent works design, project management, construction processes safety culture, risk management are concerned when analyzing these factors. Shaping factors are divided into three types.
Worker factors deals with attitudes, motivations, knowledge, skills, supervision, health and fatigue. Site factors deals with site constraints, work scheduling and housekeeping. Worker factors enable actions, behavior, capabilities, communication to build up a work team to prevent accident. Site factors like layout, space lighting, noise, hot, wet local hazards at the work place paves way to the accident which must be reduced a lot to ensure worker’s safety. Shaping factors such as design specifications supply, availability, maintenance which contributes to the suitability, usability condition of material and equipment also act as a cause of accident.
Construction is considered as one of the most dangerous industries all around the world. In site that major efforts have been carried out to improve safety performances, the construction sector continues to be behind most of the other industries. Construction should be close to action to put a supreme level for its safety practices taken against other industries, and greater opportunities must be taken to learn from breakdowns, with involving off accidents enquiring procedures to make know the contributing factors. As the world has become smaller due to the development of technology, acting together, border crossing, arrangements, safety of construction worker has become a vital consideration worldwide. Safety issues of construction can be identified and solved on global wide as these problems are very similar in most of the countries. Thus, solution for safety issues carried out in one country can be brought into practice in other country can be brought into practice in other countries in order to produce further development.
The common word safety stands between life and death. We feel good when we are safe, whether it is home, street or at workplace. When we consider the topic of safety in the engineering we can divide it into two views- Safety at the work place and a profession as a safety engineering in spite the two are inter connected together. The goal of safety engineering is to control risk at the workplace by removing or reducing it to favorable levels.
Risks is the combination of chances of an unsuccessful occurrence and the intensity resulting from the breakdown. For example, the intensity of a particular breakdown may result in causing death, injuries, cause damage to things or nothing more than disturbance. Safety engineering is about minimizing failure so that the results will not be life terrifying.
Safety extents begins during the early plan of a system. Safety engineers think seriously about what not wished events can take place under what conditions, and plan the related mishap risk. In fact, it is the safety engineer’s job to make sure an existing, completed design is preserved. If a risk is located after a construction setup work is finished, it may cause human lives into danger and cause damage to the surrounding. A professional engineer has a vast knowledge in industrial healthy living, engineering accidents management, safety of system and process, the workers’ efficiency, health management, safety of construction and product.
Safety engineers are commonly already engineers in other sectors like industrial engineering, mining engineering etc. they improve procedures and design systems that keep workers, people, neighborhood from getting illness or injured and keep property from being damaged. They put together their knowledge of safety, health and systems engineering to confirm that the chemical substances, machinery, properties and other products are not going to cause damage to people or buildings. They expect, identify and estimate dangerous conditions. Thus they develop danger control designs, methods, ways and programs which they bring into, manage as well as advise others about the programs.
Safety engineers look for solutions to prevent risks in the workplace. At certain times, it’s their job to bring the building designs, materials and the reason for what the building would be used for as well as emergency exits into serious thought. In order to the industry they are occupied in, they shall test quality of air and water, noise levels and temperature and always checkout equipment to make sure that all are in top proper working condition. In light of the above, safety is one of the most vital disciplines in engineering undoubtedly. If not brought into action, it paves way to cause disaster and loss of lives.
In order to develop worker understanding the safety anticipations, preventing wasting time not suitably and reducing the probability of mistake, an informal talk on safety can be carried out at the start of each working day can make safety managers’ jobs easier. It continues to be the most favorable ways of communicating safety to workers. It generates a precious discussion on common safety and information about safer tools, equipment, materials and procedures.
Problems faced in the construction industry
1. Working at Height
2. Moving Objects
3. Slips, Trips, & Falls
5. Material & Manual Handling
7. Airborne Fibers and Materials
Working at Height
• Loss of life and hurts happen at the site each and every year.
• Suitable training is essential to employees who works at height in the construction sites.
• Raising the employees’ awareness in working at height and the risks and controls.
• Employees must be trained in working on different pieces of equipment and surfaces.
• Train them how to work safely on scaffolding, ladders, and roofs.
• All employers need to calculate the risks from working at height
• Workers should ensure all work is carried out safely.
• Always need a trades man to work at height
• Workers must be aware of the safety actions they should follow when doing so.
• All works must be planned, supervised and precautions should be adopted.
• Avoid the works at height when it is possible. If some works will be done on a ground level, then do it there.
• Use the equipment with an extra level of safety. Use a safety net. These will reduce the risk.
• Moving the vehicles and dumper trucks through the site everywhere.
• Lifting the equipment over the head.
• Shifting heavy load by supply vehicle through the rough land.
• Engineers avoid working near moving objects.
• Wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and high visibility jacket for safety.
• Some objects may not have lights or any other monitors at night time. There workers should be watchful of their surroundings.
Slips Trips and Falls
• There are different activities going on at construction site.
• At any time, slips trip and falls will happen. That’s not a surprise thing.
• Engineers really do want eyes in the back of their head at any time.
• Wearing good conditions underfoot.
• Providing clearly designed walkways for the engineers.
• Engineers slips by cables. So use cordless tools like battery tools.
• Mark the slippery areas. If the surface is slippery with mud or ice use stone or grit in that surface.
• Everyone keep their work area clean. Allocating a specific area for waste collection.
• Noise is a main hazard in construction industry.
• Repetitive, extreme noise effects long term hearing problems.
• Noise is a dangerous distraction and reason for the accidents.
• Use ear plugs.
• Use appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome
• It is a painful disease to nerves, joints and blood vessels.
• Nonstop use of vibrating power tools in the construction site is caused this disease.
• Cold temperature can cause hurting attacks in the finger.
• Reports says that 2 million people are suffering by HAVS.
• HAVS is preventable. But unluckily the damage is permanent.
• It is harmful to work with electrical cables, electrical live parts and overhead power lines.
• Reports says that 1000 electrical accidents happen at the site every year.
• Working near high voltage power lines is a major problem.
• AC and DC electrical supplies may cause electric shock, electrical burns, loss of muscle control thermal burns.
• Harm can happen by touching live electrical parts directly or indirectly.
• Fires start with the small electrical connections.
• There are many workers carrying electrical works such as plumbers, joiners and decorators who are not qualified electricians.
• Suitable training will be provided when works happen manually.
• Provide the knowledge of electrical hazards that will happen.
• Take the securities to decrease electrical risks
Risks caused due to traffic
• Providing parking for the workers and the site visitors away from the site area.
• Make restrictions to control the entry to the site area.
• Make sure that vehicle do not have to pass through the site by planning storage areas.
• By providing protections for pedestrians at places of risks and by providing proper routes for pedestrians and vehicles can be considered to reduce the risks to pedestrians from the site traffic.
• Things to be considered to keep pedestrians and vehicles keep away.
• Providing separate gate, pathways of entrances and exits for pedestrians and vehicles.
• Providing firm walkaway that take direct path to the destination where possible.
• Providing a clear sign and crossing point where drivers and pedestrians can observe each other clearly.
• Making sure that drivers can see the both ways along the foot way before they move on it.
• Do not block the pathways, so that pedestrians do not have to face the obstructions like sleeping onto the vehicle route.
• Implementing a barrier between the roadway and walkway.
Observation or visibility becomes an important matter when vehicles reverse in areas where pedestrians cannot shut out the risk.
Things to consider regarding visibility
• Helping modes for drivers- mirrors, CCTv cameras and alarms can aid drivers to see the environment around the vehicle.
• Signalers who are trained can be obtained to control a clever management.
• Light settings can be used on the routes which are used by both the drivers and pedestrians. Lighting is specially needed after the sunset and during bad weather.
• Pedestrians on the work area must wear high visibility clothing.
Make sure that all drivers and pedestrians know and understand the pathways and the traffic rules at the site. Make sure that appropriate road signs are used.
Some another way for the hazards
• The use of burning liquid.
• Welding or cutting ways used in places not particularly arranged for such works.
• Liquid gases used with open blaze
• Flammable materials like petroleum, timber and packaging.
Best Practices to Improve Construction Site Safety
Unfamiliar workers are the main reason to the biggest problems. Their unknowing mistakes put everyone’s’ life in danger. A person who chose construction site should be aware of the risks that will happen at the site and learn how to prevent them with their knowledge. A person who do not have any concept of construction sit, must not allowed to the site. Construction manager should protect workers from these dangerous and make sure that every worker is aware of the risks. Manager must tell their crew and staff about how to prevent hazards and to avoid getting hurt.
OSHA and other organizations give some resources to help businesses to train new laborers about safety. They use training videos, worksheets, pamphlets and etc. experienced workers also wish to study about safety throughout year. This helps to make sure that all workers have suitable training. This training will help to apply safety rules at construction site. Construction workers will be easily injured or killed without proper training.
Clear communication helps to make the project go by fast and to prevent risks. Workers can’t make direct conversation at the construction site. Many accidents happen when workers are unconfident what to expect. Construction businesses train their workers with modern communication devices, smart phones, walkie-talkie or headsets. These help to pass the message fast and efficient communication among the workers.
Companies should have proper documentation to apply construction site safely. There are some legal circles to apply. Some companies jump through that and start their construction works. Proper documentation helps to the construction business from legal action and public enquiry. Choose supervisors and conductors who are well in advance of their employment. They have to give evidence for their certification. This will reduce the accidents which will happen by unsuitable training.
Construction workers must be trained with the proper equipment. If they train with improper equipment it makes fatal errors. All machinery and material are well maintained by construction business regularly. When companies give proper equipment to their workers at hand that will make a belief around the construction site safety. When workers use wrong equipment there will be a chance to get injured. Plenty of water and shady place must be available near the site. This helps to prevent dehydration and exposure-related illnesses.
If possible construction workers should understand the results of insufficient safety protections. Each site has a skilled and prepared supervisor. Supervisor make sure safety with no exceptions.
One of the major problem in construction field is increase of accident rate. Lack of security measures is also a reason. Introducing new machineries by innovative ideas will be a much better solution for it. Legislation must be followed immensely if it is aimed at improving safety protocols. Such innovation in industries provide extra recourses to keep their employees safe and maximize their construction site safety.
Construction business hiding their accidents from the press and public for their reputation. People understands that accidents happen and constructors are also doing their works for the safe environment.
Risked caused due to the traffic on roads differs according to the work which take place. Issues can occur among vehicles working inside and outside at the site, vehicles passing with machinery, equipment and workers. Various risks can occur among vehicles working in tunnels due to the traffic. Things to be considered in order to control the vehicle traffic.
All workers should be familiar to all fall hazards at the site. Do not work in an area which not has no safety fall protection. Workers make sure that they are working properly and free from dangers. When a worker works at a dangerous height, use an elastic stretch and length rope to prevent risks. Head officers must provide safety protection things like guardrails, safety net systems and personal fall arrest systems for each works to protect them on walking or working at unsafe edges or sites. Protect workers from falling into the holes like elevator, tubes and skylights or any digs. Workers should wear hard caps. It helps the workers from things which are falling from top. Most of the accidents happen by the use of improper ladder. Companies choose incorrect ladder or they fail to secure that ladder and workers bring tools in their hands while climbing on the ladder are the reasons for injury. Three parts of your body must be contact with the ladder while you are ascending and descending. The parts are two feet and at least one hand. Tools and materials are taken up by the belt or rope. When you pull the rope there you have to stop climbing. Don’t use over load in ladder. Weight must be considered including worker’s and tools’ weight. One of a person should inspect ladders each day before the work. Damaged ladders should be marked and removed from the working area. Use that ladders after theirs repair. Workers must be trained to choose a correct ladder for the work. A module person must train all workers about fall hazards. They teach about nature fall hazards, how to use fall protection tools, proper creation, examination and maintenance of fall protection systems