Second learning portfolio
In this learning portfolio I will be overlooking and accessing the following topic. Globalisation and Regulating the Global Economy, gender at work, emotional labour, finally at race, ethnicity and diversity at work. In order to access and critically analysis these topics I will be conducting extensive research that from credible sources and academic literatures and finally identifying a case study of a firm that relate to this topic.
Gender at work is a well horizon topic, with many subsidies that causes many controversies within our society. These subsidies are best described through the term intersectionality. Intersectionality is a feminism ideology that identifies how different aspect of political and social discrimination overlaps with genders. This ideology demonstrates how some people belong to multiple forms of minorities like race, sexual orientation, nationality, disability. Being a subject of this ideology increase the likelihood of being prone to additional inequalities, meaning that you could end up being ignored or excluded from diversity politics.
Some women believe that gender balance within the workplace is the battle between sexes. This believe has been perfectly narrated by Suffragette. A powerful movie, which reviewed in the US on November 2015. The movie portrays the lives of women who fought for suffrage 100 years ago. (HBR.ORG/2015)
To whom do not know what suffrage is. It is the right to vote in an election, most importantly on government representation. Decades ago females weren’t allowed to vote or part-take in any election what so ever. W.J Shepard, who was the author of the theory of suffrage. Stated that there are 5 stages of this theory.
Suffrages on attributes of citizenship: ‘This stage of the theory, explain how only those whom are citizens of the city-state were given the right to vote. ‘Meaning that if you were not part or did not live within a certain state you were unable to votes or part-take in a governmental election.
Suffrage as vested privilege: “ only the rich who owned property, especially the landed gently, had the vested right and privilege to vote for their public officials.’ Intertwining with what intersectionality, this section of the theory demonstrates how people are placed within different classes, and how each class are given a set of privileges or rewards I should say. Mean if you were a poor coloured male who lived within the city-state your right and freedom to vote would be stripped from you, leading to only rich, white privilege were able to vote, as a result of this the rich would only vote for the gain, meaning the rich would have continued getting richer, and the poor poorer.
Suffrage as an abstract or natural right: ‘ its’s an inmate right that man exercise when he becomes on an adult regardless of his qualification or disqualifications.’
The ethical theory: ‘ the exercise of suffrage under this theory makes man an asset of his community for its main objective is to improve not only his personality, but also mold him the matrix of responsible citizenship. ‘
Suffrage as a government function: ‘This theory presupposes that suffrage is a function of government. It is government that prescribes certain qualification of an individual qualified to vote. ‘
“Nebres, Abrielm. Political science made simple. p55”, Ayson Florentino G. Fundamentals of political science. 150- 163”
When it comes to gender at work, there is a lot to talk about, new cases and scenarios of this issue occurring within our society. From small enterprise to large corporate companies whom operate on a global scale. An example of this occurring to a global genome would be when Nike were charged by four women of intersectionality around the work place.
‘Nike, Inc. Is an American multinational corporation that is engaged in the design, development, manufacturing, and worldwide marketing and sales of footwear, apparel, equipment, accessories, and services. The company is headquartered near Beaverton, Oregon, in the Portland metropolitan area.’ The company has grown to a multi-powerhouse manufacture around the globe, capturalising the eyes of young urban children, teenagers and individuals whom are within their 20s to 30s, this targeting of certain demographic is what has led them to become one of the most successful brand around young adults. Making Nike footwear and clothing, the norm and a benchmark for the younger generation.
On Augusts 10th, 2018 a lawsuit was filed against the giant American corporation, by four women who used to be employed by the firm, this federal lawsuit, was for alleged pay disparities and bad managers behaving, and conducting in such horrible manners. Attorney Lauren salemo Owen stated that Nike continued to have a “good gold boys” culture, where women who operate within the company are paid lower compared to their male counter-part and receive small raises and bonus, then males in the corporation. This statement showed how heavy male orientated the company was. Due to the fact that males were being. Key phrases like “good old boys” illustrate the image of rich middle age or elderly individuals within the workforce, whom are well looked after, then some individuals within the company, based on their gender, race, ethnicity. Attorney Lauren continued to elaborate her point by saying “women came into the company being paid less than men, and were ranked and more harshly”. Meaning that it would have made it very much difficult for a female to obtain a promotion or even given a raise for their hard work, as they were looked over, and always second to none compared to their male counterparts at Nike. Nike Reacted by rejection at least eleven administrators in March and Apr. A month ago, the organization’s high HR government Monique Matheson recognised that Nike did not advance enough women. She kept in touch with representatives to specify the corporate wants “to deliver a culture of genuine consideration. As a piece of our organize, we need to upgrade representation of young ladies and other ethnic minorities.
This has led to Nike publishing their gender pay gap report, due to government, equality legislation that has been put into place in 2018, and federal lawsuits that has been occurring throughout the year. In order for them to get the Intel of the difference between the two genders, they had to aggregate all of the men pay within the company versus all the pay of females across all departments and brand. As part of this report, Nike has tracked the following data, as of April 5, 2017:
“Hourly pay rate between women and men – both the mean (average) and the median (middle), this was done in the instance that a difference in pay was indicated, an action would have been indicated and dealt with.
Percentage of women and men receiving a bonus
Total bonuses paid between women and men annually
Pay distribution of women and men divided into quartiles
There are separate reports for Retail and Wholesale; Nike’s employee presence in the UK is predominantly retail, accounting for 88% of our total population”
This is demonstrated within the report when looking at the wholesale sector of the business. It is clearly indicated that the mean for hourly pay gap within the wholesale for men/women is 3%. This shows that on average throughout the whole sales sector, either throughout the year or month, the difference in hourly pay is only 3%. The median of hourly pay gap in the firm wholesales is also 3%. Whereas the bonus pay gap mean indicated a -11% difference I believe between the two genders. However, the median illustrated an 35% figure. On the contrary the hourly pay gap within the retail sector is 5%, whereas the median is 4%, its bonus pay gap rate is 9% and median 13%.
Emotional labour has different meaning to different people; however, I simply feel like it is the need for someone to suppress their own emotions. The phrase emotional labour was used by an American sociologist Arlie Hochschild who in her books the managed heart. Within present time she describes the term emotional labour as having to “induce or suppress feeling in order to sustain the outward countenance that produces the proper state of mind in others”. Simply putting it as maintaining a fake happiness or smile on your face all day long, not because you want to, but because it is what is required of you by your boss, or the chain of command, and customers, due to the type of industry in which you operate in, mainly the with the service industry, disregarding your feelings.
Comprehending and managing the emotions of workforce is essential for organizations. Management can promote and decorate its group of workers through monitoring the results of emotions on the job. The literature on the emotions of employees. However, was once largely overlooked. This paper units up an integrative emotional work manner model to better understand the sales force’s emotional aspect in a retail context. Specifically, the paper examines the influence on job pleasure and organizational dedication of emotional labour and emotional exhaustion. Findings suggest that emotional work predicts job pride as well as organizational commitment, while emotional exhaustion predicts job pleasure only.
In may 2017 more than a dozen baristas have stated that Starbucks is ignoring staff members, and its having a huge impact on sales, within an interview with business insiders. For example, an employee stated that “Most stores are understaffed and I believe that’s the way corporate wants it”,” a barista said. “Store managers would rather be shorthanded rather than pay a penny of overtime.” This demonstrated that the firm are more willing and happier in improving and caring of the amount of capital in which they are generating rather than the emotional health of their employees. The book, the impact of emotional labour in a retail environment goes against the action in which Starbucks are taking, as it explains the importance of emotional labour and keeping employees happy, as having an happy workforce, means having a more productive business.
According to baristas, staffing issues are sophisticated by the amount of jobs that staff area unit expected to perform. There area unit currently increasing ways in which for purchasers to position orders, due to mobile ordering and drive-thru. Starbucks is additionally perpetually adding new drinks to its menu that area unit each connoisseur and low-brow, however time-intensive, like new Frappuccino varieties. Because of this staff have been feeling over works and unappreciated, leading to an employee stating that “You’re running around and sometimes it gets a little ragged” with baristas feeling “like they’re drowning sometimes”,” this illustrate that ideology of Starbucks staff being over worked to their death.
This is something that I have experienced on a personal level as well, as I used to work in Pure. Coffee shop during my A-levels. Where I had to be at the store to help the managers open up at half 5 in the morning, every Saturday and finish around 2pm, and start at 2pm Sunday and finish 12am on a Monday morning, then having to wake up at 6am to get ready for sixth-form. This was something that I didn’t enjoy and had left me tired and sleep every Saturday morning and Monday morning. Because of this I was mostly feeling grumpy at work and tired, but I had to maintain a happy and fake smile in-order to please the managers and customers, this is because if I was unable to do that managers and supervisors would complain or tell me off. This meant that I had to look happy all the time and act happy. It was too much for me to bear as I would be going to school tired and grumpy sleepy during classes it meant that I was unable to focus compared to my class mates. In additional I was always unhappy, I spoke to managers about this, and how it wasn’t on my timetable and it hasn’t the hours in which I have asked. He told me that I should give him a month or two and I will go back to my normal working hours, but this never happened and after 3 weeks I decided to quite my job.
“Diversity means having a range of people with various racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, and cultural backgrounds and various lifestyles, experience, and interests. Having a variety of individuals and points of view represented in the department. Diversity is a group of people who are different in the same place.”
While racial or ethnic range is a common focus of range training, there’s more to range than just this one component. A without a doubt various staff can imply extraordinary matters to distinctive people. However, one issue that’s for sure is that it’s extra than strictly demographic data. Simply put, diversity can be broken down into a variety of categorizations, including:
Race and ethnicity
Culture and language
Age and generational differences
Gender and sexual orientation
Neurodivergence and cognitive functions
Different experiences, types of intelligence, and values
“In light of these different forms of diversity, it’s vital for management and human assets personnel to create inclusive surroundings that is welcoming to everyone. However, this is an area in which some corporations excel and others struggle.”
Research from distinct studies on hundreds of organizations conducted round the world has come to the following established conclusions: Ethnic range inside the govt department of a organisation can improve profitability with the aid of around 30% in international locations round the world! More in particular in the U.S., income upward push a bit much less than 1% for each and every 10% amplify in racial and ethnic diversity in senior govt roles. Globally, groups with little to no racial diversity are statistically much less in all likelihood to post above-average returns even when in contrast to agencies with common amounts of racial range let by myself the most numerous organizations.
In the U.S., racial and ethnic variety appears to have a larger wonderful influence on income than gender diversity. This is now not to imply, with the aid of any means, one is more vital than the other. Rather, this ought to be truly due to the fact pushes for gender-based diversity in the place of work have been around for longer and its recommended monetary influence has already been maximized in some agencies as a result.
Lend lease are committed on building a workplace in which all individuals are supported, respected and connected, in order for them to feel themselves at work and strive for the business. The reason why in which the business has a diversity policy is to create the best place to work where people can be their whole self at work and safe. They also believe that diversity and inclusion is a key enabler to realising their true vision to create the best place specifically. This is because from their years of experience having an diverse workforce has given them a competitive edge over their competitors, making them a go to company for clients who, have ethical ideas on construction projects.
Another reason why lend lease really focus on improve their business diversity and inclusion of people is because of innovation and productivity. This is because lend lease would like to remain competitive and differentiate in to the market and respect differences. As it would bring new ideas and allow them to become more innovative as different people from different culture would bring new and fresh ideas to the business, and news ways of completing task and project faster and much cheaper.
Another reason why to have a diversity policy is to become employer of choice. This is because within our generation a lot of people would like to work with different people from different back grounds as them, and experience new things, more, so the more diverse your business is the more people you would be able to attract as they would feel welcomed, and valued.
An advantage of this policy is that it helps lend lease to become very multi-cultural. This is because they would be employing people from different backgrounds, and style of working that could help them when it comes to be productive and very effective. Moreover, this would the business to be more innovative, as new ideas would be coming in to the business, which could help them gain a competitive advantage over competitors, making it easier for them to gain market share. However, a disadvantage about this policy is that it would be very expensive and hard to find people who would want to work within the construction industry as they may have some negative views on this type of job, as some people mainly think the construction sectors as very manly and hard doing, but don’t really realise that there are various other roles behind the scene that helps them function.
Globalisation and its effect on Amazon
Student number: 189026803
Within the last two-decade globalisation has been the buzzword on everyone’s tongue. From being taught within academic institutions to professional institutions (The world of business), this concept has been the powerhouse, driving-force of modern economic growth within the world. Third world economies around the globe are able to generate their own wealth: from an increase in western organisation investing in them, to increases in technological advancement occurring due to an upsurge in innovation from business and organisation whom operate within that particular country. To show this concept of globalisation, my case study of Amazon which shows the positive and negative impact that globalisation offers to a company and its affect on the industry in which Amazon operates in.
In the book ‘globalization and its discontents’ written by Joseph E. Stiglitz (2001) he understood globalisation as a closer integration of countries and people. He also recognises many failures of globalisation such as poverty and wealth polarisation. Drawing from my understanding of the book, I believe that Stiglitz is stating that globalisation has helped to bring countries together both economically and political, and that people feel more connected to one another in various aspect. Relating this concept to my case study, it is visible that Amazon have been the main platform that demonstrates the integration of countries and people, on an e-commerce base. Due to the nature of the business, ordinary people are able to sell goods and services from their home countries to various customers across the world.
However, I disagree with Stiglitz statement of poverty being the repercussion of globalisation1 https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1079&context=bepp_papers , as Amazon generates jobs opportunity for thousands of people within the state alone. For example, in 2017 alone the firm have employed around 555″,000 people worldwide to that number increasing to 575″,000 at the start of 2018, which includes both part-time and full-time work. The mass employment that Amazon puts into place to increase their surplus of labour, within their fulfilment centre, would help and increase the production of the company. It would have a positive effect on the world economy as more people would be in employment, therefore having a disposable income which would cycle back into the economy as a form of expenditure. However, an increase in employment can somewhat also contribute to poverty, or may not help it at all. This is because an increase in employment may mean that an increase requirement and qualification needed to obtain the job, as there would be a huge number of competitions. This may not be the case for some Amazon employees, as not a lot of requirement is need to be able to obtain the jobs, as Amazon do employ a lot of migrant workers
This Chart Shows Amazon’s Dominance in EcommerceOn the contrary I do agree with Stiglitz statement that globalisation has increase the number of wealth polarisation2 https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/globalization-of-discontent-by-joseph-e–stiglitz-2017-12?barrier=accesspaylog that is happening within the economy and global domain. This consequence is mainly illustrated within the e-commerce industry. This is due to the fact that within the United States Ecommerce industry, Amazon have been at the frontline of total market domination. Nevertheless, in spite of this being regular learning, the latest information behind the blast in Amazon’s market position is as yet shocking to view: over the most recent two years, the officially massive Amazon by one way or another could build a lot of the all-out U.S as internet business showcase from 38% to 49%. (Jeff Desjardins Aug 2018).
Almost capturing a milestone of about 50% of the Ecommerce sales within the U.S, meaning being at centre ownership of the £252.7 billion market, that more than eBay, apple, Walmart, etc.3 https://www.visualcapitalist.com/chart-shows-amazons-dominance-ecommerce/
In addition, one theorist that we can draw a conclusion from is Adam Smith. In Adam Smith’s book ‘Wealth of Nation’ (1776) he stated that ‘As it is the power of exchanging that gives occasion to the division of labour, so the extent of this division must always be limited by the extent of that power, or, in other words, by the extent of the market.’ 4 https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/smith-adam/works/wealth-of-nations/book01/ch03.htm (Adam smith, 1776 book 1, chapter 3). From this statement I believe that Smith is saying that within globalisation occurring within our modern economy and life time, it gives the nations the ability to trade freely among around the global, as different parts of the manufacturing process are dedicated around the world through specialisation. Amazon has a structured and rigid division of labour. This is something that I experienced first-hand at my time working within one of their fulfilment centres. This is because we had individuals from parts of the world, who where specialised in the different roles in which the company possessed. This meant that work was conducted in an effectively manner and productivity was high.
Moreover, Karl Marx and Friedrich and Engels, in the 1848 stated that, ‘The need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the entire surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connections everywhere.’ (Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels the communist manifesto )5 https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/ch01.htm This powerful statement of globalisation needing to nestle everywhere is one that I think is occurs more so than before. An explanation for this would be companies like Amazon and eBay. This is because these companies are able to nestle their business, and corporation around the globe more than before, as companies are able to expand their business in countries who have an absolute advantage in labour and specialisation of machinery and raw materials. The reason why in whihcit is easy for company like Amazon to do this is because it brings a lot of capital to the countries in which they operate in, which means that for third world countries more people would be able to have some sort of disposable income, as they have been employees by amazon, this means that they would have some capital to spend, as a result of more people spending, the economy is being injected with capital, creating a cash flow motion for more finance to go around and be invested in the economy and society.
Smith highlighted this perfectly when he specified that “If a foreign country can supply us with a commodity cheaper than we ourselves can make it, better buy it of them with some part of the produce of our own industry, employed in a way in which we have some advantage’ (Adam smith, wealth of nations 1776 book 5, chapter 5)6 https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/smith-adam/works/wealth-of-nations/book04/ch02.htm Simplifying that statement Smith is saying if you are able to obtain a product for cheaper than expected than take. And this is one positive aspect of Globalisation. As countries are able to have comparative advantage over some countries, when it comes to manufacturing, labour, etc. This is mainly occurring in the industrialised and emerging countries around the word, prime examples are china and India. Due to globalisation these countries where able to increase their nations GDP and economic wealth. I.e. in 2015 china became the biggest economy in the world, over taking huge nations like USA, Russia, United Kingdom, and the European countries. In Relation to Amazon CFO Tom szkutak mentioned that ‘the focus on adding infrastructure and fulfilment capacity has affected the operating income, and highlighted India and China as emerging markets that the company is attacking’.
“We’re very excited about India”,” he said.7 https://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-international-growth-2015-2?r=US&IR=T Why this is because these countries obtain a competitive advantage in labour compared to other nations around the world, as they are the two largest nations in the world. In additional, these labours are cheaper, due to the fact that they are not paid as much compared to their USA counterparts.
To conclude, I believe that globalisation has more of a positive impact on the world. This is because it allows these huge corporations to operate on a day to day basis and generate capital within. It allows governance to trade among each other and operate to the benefit of their country. In additional it has a positive impact on Amazon, as it has allowed them to expand around the world, increasing their customers and consumer out reach.