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Social media as a new medium

Research Question and Hypothesis The importance of social media is increasing in Turkey together with the World. Especially for the Y generation in Turkey, social media is crucial. There are always news and stories happening through the day, because of the fast-moving world. This results in people to follow and learn faster, and social media is a suitable source for this. This study examines whether social media has become the most used source for news consumption among Turkish youth. RQ:What is the relationship between Social Media as a source and news consumption among the Turkish youth? There are several but not enough researches about the social media and news consumption and yet there is no specific national work on this subject. The Y generation comprises 35 percent of the whole population of Turkey, which is almost 28 million people (Kaya, A.). And this huge amount of individuals do not have a specific study that addresses their situation regarding news consumption and social media as a source for it. To address this research gap, this study focuses on the social media as a source of news consumption by analyzing the young population in Turkey with a cross-sectional survey. Social media is a new channel, also known as the new media. Social media is developing every single day and it evolves into something bigger, faster, more accessible and furthermore, disruptive. As Newman et al (2017) put, social media creates new channels by which people can access the news. Because of the size of Turkey, and the fact that its geographical position and political stance, the environment of Turkey are always altering into something new, and there is always news to be found. To be able to catch up with the news, events, updates, and changes in the environment or within the country, people are in need of following the news from an easily accessible source, which also yields them to follow the news faster than conventional mediums. If we can find the source that is most used for news consumption among others, it will open up for new possibilities to improve this source. It can be made even faster, more accessible. Some sub-sources can be created. The context of the news can be altered to make them a better and more convenient information material. The relationship between the news and the ones consuming them is constantly changing, and evolving through technology. (Becan, C.). Social media spaces allow for new relations that disrupt authoritative structures and establish free flows of information. Social Media creates a junction of different news, consisting the users the news not only from traditional media outlets, but also from the news that is created and contributed to its distribution by other users in the social network, and it supplies both of these at the same time (Gil de Zúñiga, H). Marwick and Boyd (2010) described a social network, Twitter and gave it as an example a technology that has a networked audience in which the contents are created and interchanged between them. From quite a lot of researches that are done on Social Media and news consumption it can be deduced that, particularly for the younger population, the power and importance of traditional media are diminishing. According to a study by Pew (2016), the citizens of the United States, particularly the younger adults, are getting exposed to the news via some channels like Facebook, Twitter, and also news applications which are social media channels, and this exposition is increasing over time. Purcell et al (2010) found that a three-quarter of the consumers of online news is getting some portion of their news from social networking websites such as Facebook, via posts, shares or emails. People, followers of news, especially young individuals are using social media as a way to access the news. In Canada, a particular study revealed that, more than sixty percent of the social media users are following the news and different views were one of their major cause for being a part of websites like Facebook (Hermida, A., Fletcher, F., Korell, D., & Logan, D.). H: Social Media as a source is positively related with the news consumption among the Turkish youth. Measurement In this study, our key dependent variable is the news consumption. In line with our hypothesis, the expected outcome will be that, the respondents using Social Media as a major source of news consumption, i.e. compared to other sources, people are using mostly Social Media to follow the news. The table below has been prepared to ask the respondents from which sources do they follow the news and how frequently in a week from 5 different options. The sources are Newspapers, Radio, Television, Social Media and News Websites. The frequencies are: Never, one to two days, three to four days, five to six days and daily. The respondents will be asked to mark a single box for weekly usage frequency for each source from the scale. So, each source will have usage frequency. Noting that, some sources may have the same frequency. Scale answers are grouped as; never, 1-2 days a week, 3-4 days a week, 5-6 days a week, all daily. And the values given are 1, 2, 3 “,4, and 5 respectively. 5 value labels are given like this never=1 1-2 days=2, 3-4 days=3, 5-6 days=4, daily=5. SourceUsage per Week (days) Never 1-2 days 3-4 days 5-6 days Daily Newspapers Radio TV Social Media News Websites In this study, the independent variable is social media usage. Firstly, to be able to measure this, we will ask the respondents (which are randomly sampled) if they are using social media or not. This question will be closed-ended, indeed a yes or no question. The question will be “Do you use social media?”. Values are numbered as 1 and 2, and value labels will be matched as; yes=1 no=2. Secondly, to unveil the daily use of social media, the respondents were asked to answer how often do they use social media on average in a single day. Values are numbered from 1 to 4 and assigned to 0-1 hour, 1-3 hours, 3-5 hours, and more than 5 hours a day, respectively. Values are numbered 1 to 4 and value labels are stated as this 0-1 hour=1″,1-3 hours=2, 3-5 hours=3″,5hrs+ =4. Lastly, we will ask for the reason why do they use social media. We made use of a Likert Scale and asked the reason in their usage of social media with the following phrase and options: “ I use Social Media for/to…” To follow the news/Acquire new information, For professional reasons, To contact with family/ friends and people I know, To meet new people, For personal interests (hobbies, pictures, videos, etc.). We ask respondents to choose one of the answers from 5 point Likert Scale for each reason. Here, the Likert Scale is consisted of: Completely Agree, Agree, Neither, Disagree, Completely Disagree. Values are numbered from one to five and assigned to the scale with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively. Value labels are represented like this; Completely agree=1, Agree=2, Neither=3, Disagree=4, Completely Disagree=5. I use Social Media… Completely Agree Agree Neither Disagree Completely Disagree To follow the news/ acquire new information For professional reasons To contact with my family/ friends/ people I know To meet with new people For personal interests (hobbies, pictures, videos, etc.) To be able to have knowledge about the demographics, some basic questions will be asked. At first, we will ask respondents their gender with three different options, and the options being: Male, Female and Prefer not to say. And these options will be valued one, two and three, respectively. Naturally, the question about age is going to be an open-ended question. Secondly, we will ask their study degree in universities(Bachelors”,Masters”,PhD). This question will be a closed-ended one. The respondents will be asked to choose their study degrees among three options. This question will be a closed-ended question. Values are numbered 1″,2 and 3, and value labels are stated as Bachelor=1 Masters=2 PhD=3. The questions as it will be seen in the survey are stated below. Q1. What is your gender? Q2. How old are you? Q3. Which study degree are you in? Research Design This questionnaire has been prepared, taking two different pieces of research as a guide. One is the study of following news from Social Media (Shehata, A., & Strömbäck, J.), and the other is the research conducted of students about their news consumption from Social Media (Lee, C. S., & Ma, L.). Here in this study, Cross-Sectional Survey will be used because this study’s aim is to collect data about distinct topics at a single time. And furthermore, Cross-Sectional Research Design allows us to access more than one variable at the same time, and to compare them. Thus, it is optimal for this particular study. (https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/cross-sectional-vs-longitudinal-studies) In the questions stated above, the goal is to find out and define the sources that the youth (age in between 18 and 30) uses to follow the news, the effect of social media as a source on this habit, the reasons they are using social media and how often do they use it. Here, the optimal data collection method to collect the necessary information that is suitable for statistical analysis, that is a self-completion web-based survey, has been conducted. Because, this kind of surveys are rather fast, cheap and are excluded from interviewer bias. And further, we can implement tables in our questions. The reason the survey implemented here is limited to seven questions is that: The surveys done via internet can have a negative effect on the respondent and thus the output may be altered granting sub-optimal results (Bryman, A.”,). The survey used here, is comprised of three different parts. In the first part of the survey to be able to know the demographics of the respondents, basic open and closed-end questions are prepared. The second part of the survey, the questions are related to the usage of social media by the young in a broader sense. Questions include Likert Scale with five levels (Completely disagree(1)-…-Completely agree(5)) and closed-end questions. At the last part of the survey, is again closed-end questions are asked. For this study, internal validity is not that strong because it is difficult to found a causal connection or in other words, relations from our data findings. (Bryman, A.). Some problems may occur about external validity, for instance, if the potential respondents do not have access to internet or cannot complete the survey on time, the answers gathered can be less than expected. To overcome this probable issue, the students will be granted with an extensive time period. The emails of the students are going to be given by the university, so the respondents will be students in some particular, randomly predetermined university. Thus, even if there are some individuals who do not have internet access at their home, we presume every university grants free access to internet to its students, so eventually every respondent will have access to internet. Since this survey is a cross-sectional research design, this survey tries to find a relationship between social media and news consumption. From the results, we cannot be sure about the causal effect. Correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Sample And Data Collection For this particular study, the sample frame is every student that is studying either bachelors or masters. Because of the population, its size and its location-wise wideness it is not plausible for us to cover every single individual in our target group. Furthermore, it is also not possible to reach everybody even via an internet survey. To be able to represent the target group in our study the most suitable way while being convenient in regards to time and cost, we have used a particular Sampling Method. This method implemented is Multi-Staged Random Sampling. As stated above, reaching every individual via an internet survey is not realizable in the sense that reaching everybody’s e-mail address is not quite efficient. This is the major reason the survey is going to be conducted on students of universities, since it is possible for us to reach universities and request the students email addresses. All of the universities in Turkey will be listed randomly, and then from this random list, a total of six universities will be chosen randomly. Then the selected universities will be asked for their students’ email addresses, stating that these will be used for academic purposes. Then, these students’ email addresses will be listed again, randomly. After that, a hundred students will be selected randomly from each university, making a total of six hundred (100×6) randomly selected students from these six different universities. For the random selection processes, random.org (a website that enables us to draw and rank randomly) will be used. Since this will be a web-based survey we are not in need of having to wait for a long time for the collection of data. Data will be collected right after respondents complete their surveys. Since in this particular study, the data is collected from a randomly selected sample, the validity of external-population is rather high. And from that, it can be said that the results of this study can be generalized from the sample it is chosen to the population. (Bryman, A.) . External validity increasing because im doing random selection but its not 100% generalizable to the whole population. References: Becan, C. (2018). Sosyal Medya Bağimliliğinin Haber Takibi Motivasyonlari Üzerine Etkisi. Erciyes İletişim Dergisi”,5(3), 238-256. doi:10.17680/erciyesakademia.350085 Bryman, A. (2012).Social Research Methods – 4th Ed. Oxford: OXFORD University Press. Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal studies. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/cross-sectional-vs-longitudinal-studies Zúñiga, H. G., Weeks, B., & Ardèvol-Abreu, A. (2017). Effects of the News-Finds-Me Perception in Communication: Social Media Use Implications for News Seeking and Learning About Politics.Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication”,22(3), 105-123. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12185 Hermida, A., Fletcher, F., Korell, D., & Logan, D. (2012). SHARE, LIKE, RECOMMEND. Journalism Studies, 13(5-6), 1-10. Kaya, A. (2018, January 07). X, Y ve Z Kuşakları Nedir? Özellikleri Nelerdir? » TechWorm. Retrieved from /www.tech-worm.com/x-y-z-kusaklari-nedir-ozellikleri-nelerdir/ Lee, C. S., & Ma, L. (2012). News sharing in social media: The effect of gratifications and prior experience.Computers in Human Behavior”,28(2), 331-339. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2011.10.002 Marwick, A. E., & Boyd, D. (2010). I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience.New Media & Society”,13(1), 114-133. doi:10.1177/1461444810365313 Newman, N., Fletcher, R., Kalogeropoulos, A., Levy, D. A. L., & Nielsen, R. K. (2017), Reuters institute digital news report 2017. Oxford, UK: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. Mitchell, A., Shearer, E., Gottfried, J., & Barthel, M. (2018, April 26). The Modern News Consumer. Retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/2016/07/07/the-modern-news-consumer/ Purcell, K., Rainie, L., Mitchell, A., Rosenstiel, T., Purcell, K., Rainie, L., . . . Rosenstiel, T. (2017, March 15). Understanding the Participatory News Consumer. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Online-News.aspx Shehata, A., & Strömbäck, J. (2018). Learning Political News From Social Media: Network Media Logic and Current Affairs News Learning in a High-Choice Media Environment.Communication Research”,009365021774935. doi:10.1177/0093650217749354 Social networks: Penetration in selected countries 2019 | Statistic. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.statista.com/statistics/282846/regular-social-networking-usage-penetration-worldwide-by-country/

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