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Work life balance

Work stress has become major issue in today’s competitive and rapidly changing environment, which results in considerable costs to employees and organisations (Cotton & Hart, 2003). Different studies have shown the negative impacts of stress. Some researchers have shown both positive and negative outcomes of stress. Le Fevre et al., (2003) and Watson et al., (1988) in their study reported that positive outcome of stress reflects the extent to which a person feels enthusiastic, active and alert, and it occur within even extremely stressful situations. Negative outcome can include emotions such as anger, contempt, disgust, fear and guilt.

Greenhaus, Parasuraman, Granrose, Rabinowitz & Beutell (1989) reported that work role stressors (role conflict and role ambiguity) accounted for a significant portion of the variance in time-based and strain-based work-family conflict for both men and women. Role overload was the most consistent predictor of both forms of work family conflict. Work ambiguity was found as a more potent source of work family conflict for men than for women. In addition, task characteristics (autonomy and complexity) were found to be associated with work family conflict and were more strongly related for women than for men. Thomas, Thiede, Ganster & Daniel (1995) analyzed that supportive practices, particularly flexible scheduling and supportive supervisors had direct positive effects on employee perceptions of control over work and family matters. Control perceptions, thus, were related to lower levels of work–family conflict, job stress and job dissatisfaction. Kim & Ling (2001) in their study found that the number of hours worked, work stressors (role conflict and worries about the financial health of the business) and work schedule inflexibility were negatively related to work-life balane. Voydanoff (2004) studied the effects of work demands and resources on work-to-family conflict. The study revealed that the organizational support (supportive organizational culture and supervisor work-family support) was negatively associated with work-to-family conflict and positively associated with work life balance. Walia (2014) studied the relationship between work-life balance, task variety and task autonomy of bank employees; and also compared the work-life balance with varied levels of task variety and task autonomy. The study found significant correlations between work-life balance and task variety and task autonomy. Kaushal and Parmar (2018) in their study found work support and work role overload as the most influential factors in explaining the work life balance of police personnel. Schirmer & Lopez (2001) studied the effects of supervisor support on work-related stress in a sample of employees and identified that the perception of support from supervisors significantly reduced reported levels of psychological strain among employees.

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